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Chemical Levels/Elem

The Chemical Level of Organization

The human body is formed from _____ elements. 26
Four elements form 96% of the mass of the body which are ________, _________, __________, __________. Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N)
Eight elements that form 3.8% of body mass are: Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sulfur (S), Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe)
An atom consists of: A nucleus with surrounding electrons.
A nucleus consists of: Protons & neutrons.
Electrons: Form a bridge-like structure that links atoms to each other forming molecules which are called Chemical bonds.
Chemical Bonds: Are the bridge-like structure that links atoms to each other.
Ionic Bonds: Bonds that break easily. Ex- Placing salt into water and the bonds are broken.
Before the formation of an ion each element is: Neutral, has no charge.
Covalent Bonds are formed when: Atoms share electrons. They are strong and resist breakage.
Hydrogen Bond is: A bond that is formed when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts a partial negative charge. Ex- Water.
These two elements form water: Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
1 of 4 principal types of chemical reactions in the body. Synthesis or anabolism builds new and larger molecules, for ex- amino acids are the building blocks of protein.
2 of 4 principal types of chemical reactions in the body. Decomposition reactiona or catabolism split large molecules into smaller atoms, ions, or molecules, for ex- glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid in the cytoplasm of cells.
3 of 4 principal types of chemical reactions in the body. Exchange reactions consist of both synthesis and decomposition reactions, for ex- AB + CB _> AD + BC
4 of 4 principal types of chemical reactions in the body. Reversible reactions allow a molecule to breakdown and reform.
Organic Compounds are: The chemicals in the body that contain atoms of carbon.
Inorganic Compounds are: The chemicals in the body that DO NOT contain atoms of carbon.
Inorganic acids, bases, and salts dissolve in water and dissociate which means: The atoms separate.
Water servers and the _______________ for most chemical reactions in the body. Medium
Water can solubilize many solutes, therefore is and important _______________________. Solvent.
Water has a high _____________ capacity. Heat.
Water is an inportant part of __________ and _______________ fluids that lubricates surfaces of the body. Mucus and serous.
When atoms separate (ex- salt dissolving in water) the atoms: Become charged as they gain or lose electrons.
pH scale runs from: 0-14
A pH of __ is neutral. 7
A pH higher than 7 is ____________. Basic.
A pH below 7 is _____________ ____________. Increasingly acidic.
In order to function properly the blood of the human body must have a pH between ___ & ___. 7.35 - 7.45
On the pH scare each number change represents a ___ fold change in pH. 10
____________ in our blood protects our pH balance. Buffers
Carbs, lipids, and proteins are _______________ ____________. Organic compounds.
Carbohydrates include the following: Sugars, starches, & glycogen. These compunds represent 2-3% of body mass. Carbs finction as a source of chemical energy by generating ATP.
Lipids include the following: Fats & oils or tryglicerides, phospholipids, steriods, fatty acids & fat-soluble vitamins. Make up 18-25% of body mass. They do not dissolve in solvents like water so they are hydrophillic protein and form lipoproteins.
Created by: laurabland



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