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A&P 211

Chapter 15 the heart

Major Functions of the Cardiovascular system Circulate substances throughout the body. Supplies cells & tissues with oxygen, nutrients and also removes waste (CO2 & urea)from cells and tissues.
Blood is what type of tissue? Connective Tissue
The study of the of the heart is called? Cardiology
Location of the heart is? Mediastinum
What is the size of the heart? Closed fist. About 300g (adult)
What is the inferior portion of the heart called? Apex
Heart has 3 membranes what are they? Visceral pericardium, Parietal pericardium and Fibrous Pericardium.
The inner most delicate epithelium covering and connective tissue surrounding the heart muscle is called what Visceral Pericardium
Inner linig of fibrous pericardium is called what? Parietal Pericardium
What type of fluid lies between the visceral and parietal pericardium? Serous Fluid
Outermost tough, fibrous protective connective tissue layer that prevents overstretching of the heart? Fibrous Pericardium
Inflammation of the pericardium? Pericarditis
The heart wall is composed of three layers what are they? Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
Visceral perocardium consists of mesothelium and connective tissue is called what? Epicardium
Cardiac muscle tissue, bulk of the heart is called what? Myocardium
Smooth inner lining of the heart chambers and valves is called what? Endocardium
How many chambers does the heart have? 4
The right and left atrium are seperated by what? Interatrial Septum
The atria receives blood from where? Veins
The atria is covered by ear-like flaps called? Auricles
Which atrium receives blood from the superor and inferioe vena cava and coronary sinus? Right Atrium
Which atrium receives blood from the pulmonary veins? Left Atrium
What seperates the right and left Ventricles? interventricular Septum
This pumps blood from the heart into the arteries? Ventricles
Arteris carry blood toward or away from the heart? Away
This carries blood that is high in O2 & low in C02? Arteries
This carries blood that is high in CO2 and low in O2? Pulmonary arteries
Carries blood from the left ventricule to the body? Aorta
Carries blood from the right ventricle to the body? Pulmonary Arteries
This carries blood to the myocardium. Coronary Arteries
Do veins carry blood toward the heart or away from the heart? Toward
Brings blood from the head and upper limbs? Superior Vena Cava
Brings blood from the trunk and lower limbs? Inferior Vena Cava
Brings blood from the myocardium Coronary Sinus
All of these deposit blood into the right atrium? Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava and Coronary Sinus
Brings blood from the lungs to the left atrium. 2 right and 2 left Pulmonary Veins
This valve lies between the right atrium and ventricle? Tricuspid Valve
This valve lies between the left atrium and ventricle? Bicuspid Valve
Tendon-like , fibrous cords that connect the cusps of the AV valves to the papillary muscle (inner surface) of ventricles. Chordae Tendineae
The muscle columns that are located on the inner surface of the ventricles? Papillary Muscle
Which valves open when pressure in the ventricles exceeds the pressure in te arteries? Semilunar Valves
The pathway through the Heart and Lungs is called what? Pulmonary Circuit
This receives deoxygenated blood from the system and sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated. Pulmonary Circut
Connections between tow or more branches of arteries that supply the same region with blood. Anastomoses
Most problems in the heart occur because of what? Blood clots, fatty atherosclerotic plaques, and smooth muscle spasms within th ecoronary vessels.
Reduction in blood flow? Ischemia
Reduced oxygen supply due to ischemia? Hypoxia
Symptons include: crushing chest pain radiating down left arm, labored breathing, weakness, dizziness, perspiration. Relived by Nitroglycerin Angina Pectoris (strangled chest)
What is a MI? Myocardial Infarction
What is a MI caused by? Thrombus (stationary Blood Clot) or embolus (moving blood clot) in coronary artery
What are the treatments from MI? Clot-dissolving agents along with heprin or an angioplasty.
This occurs when a oxygen deprived (hypoxic) tissue's blood supply is reestablished? Reperfusion Damage
What defends the body against reperfusion damage anf include the enzyme catalase, Vitamin E, C, and beta-carotene. Anti-oxidants
Self Exciting Means? Autorhythmic
Located in the upper most atrial wall. PACEMAKER-self-exciting tissue. SA Node
Located in the interatrial septum, slows down the signal, delay signal that allows for ventricular filling Atrioventricular Node= A-V Node
Only Connection between the stria and ventricles, located in the superior interventricular septum? AV Bundle
Conduction Myofibers. Large in Diameter conduction, causes ventricles to contract which forces blood out? Purkinje Fibers
Used to determine the conduction pathway is normal, the heart is enlarged, certain regions are damaged. ECG
How many waves are per heartbeat? 3 P Wave, QRS Complex, T Wave
Small upward wave, represents atrial depolarization. .1 second after wave begins the atria contracts P-Wave
Precedes Contraction Depolarization
Precedes Relaxation Repolarization
Represents onset of ventricular Depolarization. Shortly after this begins ventricules contract. QRS Compex
Dome shaped upward deflection, Represents ventricular repolarizations, occurs just before ventricles start to relax. T-Wave
Enlargement of an atrium possibly due to mitral stenosis? Enlarged P Wave
Enlarged Q Wave Myocardial Infarction
Enlarged R Wave? Ventricular Hypertrophy
Phase of Contraction Sytole
Phase of Relaxation Diastole
Closing of the AV Valves (Ventricular Systole) Lub
Closing of the SK Valve (Ventricular diastole) DUB
Means to listen to.. Auscultate
A condition when blood leaks back into the heart and the valve cusps is incomplete. Heart Murmur
The volume of blood pumped by either ventricle into the arch of the aorta in one minute Cardiac Output
Factors that regulate stroke volume. Preload, Contractility and afterload
Effect of Stretching Preload
The strength of contraction at any given preload, is affected by a positive and negative inotropic agent Myocardial Contractility
Pressure that must be ovecome before a semilunar vale can open is the... Afterload
a greater preload (stretch) on cardiac muscle fibers just beofre they contract increases their force of contraction during systole. Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
Decrease heart rate. (normal) Parasympathetic
Stressful heartbeat. Sympathetic
The study of the forces involved in accomplishing that feat. Hemodynamics
The vesels that carry blood from the right ventricle to lungs, and the vessels that return the blood to the left atrium. Pulmonary Circuit
Vessels that carry blood from the heart to body cells and back to the heart. Systemic Circuit
Carries blood rich in oxygen. Arterial System
Returns blood to the heart after gas, nutrient and waste exchange, usually follow pathways that are parallel to the artieris that supplied that particular region with blood. Venous System
Are thick walled vessels, have three distinct layers. Arteries: Tunica INterna, Tunica Media, Tunica Externa
Surrounds lumen and is composed of: Simple Squamous Epithelium, basement memberane Tunica Interna
The thickest layer, smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers. Tunica Media
Outermost layer composed of elastic fibers, . Tunica Externa
Very small arteries, deliver blood to cappillaries in tissues, Arterioles
Decreased Blood Flow; increase blood pressure Vasoconstriction
Increased Blood Flow and decreased blood pressure Vasodilation
Smallest and thinnest blood vessels. Capillaries
Gases, Nitroents, and wastes are exchanged between blood in capillaries and tissues in three ways... Diffusion, Vesicular Transport, bulk Flow
What percent of blood travels through veins and venules? 60-70%
What precent of blood travels through arteries and arterioles? 10-12%
The pressure exerted by blood on the wall of blood vessel? Blood Pressure
Normal blood pressure is? 120/80
Increases CO (rate and Force of contraction) and causes vaso constriction of arterioles. Increases Blood Pressure) Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Increases Blood Pressure. Increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys (DCT) and casues vasoconstriction of arterioles during diuresis and during hemorrage. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Increases Blood Pressure. Has four different targets that cause vasoconstriction of arterioles and causes the secretion of aldosterone. Angiotension II
Increases Blood Pressure. Increases NA+ and water reabsorption in the kidneys. (PCT) Aldosterone
Decreases Blood Pressure Causes Vasodilaton of arterioles and promotes the loss of salt and water in urine. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
Decreases in Blood Pressure. Causes vasodilation of arterioles (plays a key role in inflammation) Histamine
Created by: gage41001



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