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chemical level


atoms smallest unit of matter
BODY (96% of body mass) oxygen, carbon, hydogen, nitrogen
Ionic bonds opposite charged ions are attracted to each other
ions atom that has gained or lost electrons becomes (+) or (-)
cations a (+) charged ion
Anions (-) charged ion
covalent bonds 2 or more atoms share electrons equally
polar covalent bonds one atom attracts the shared electron more (partial (+) & (-) ends
Hydrogen bonds (surface tension) water forms polorbonds, H is attracted to neighboring atoms (pool)
Reactants starting substance of a reaction
products ending substance after a reaction
activation energy inital energy to start a reaction- increase in concentration or temperature causes atoms to collide
catalysis speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy needed, not consumed
enzymes special proteins lowering the activation energy in living tissue, can not tolerate high heat or concentrations
exergonic reactings that release more energy (produce energy)
endergonic reactions require more energy (absorb energy)
decomposition reactions splitting up larger molecules into smaller ones (gives off energy)
catabolism breaking down substances in body (sugar)
hydrolysis use water to split a substance
synthesis reaction combinging of substances to produce new larger molecules (requires energy)
anabolism combing substances in the body (amino acids-> proteins)
dehydration synthesis H2o formed while joining reactions (making something bigger)
exchange reactions both compounds switch partners A-B+C-D -> A-D+B-C
reversible reactions produts can revert back to original reactants AB<-->A+B (goes both ways)
Nutrients ezzential elements &molecules obtained from food
metabolites molecules broken down in the body
solubility molecule will break or dissolve in water
reactivity medium for reactions
high heat capacity absorb and retain heat
electrolytes inorganic molecules whose ions will conduct an elestric sharge
hydrophilic interact with water (loves water)
hydrophobic does not interact with water (hates/fears water)
PH concentration of hydogen ions (factors of 10)
neutral PH of 7
Acidic pH lower than 7
Basic pH above 7
(inorganic) salts union of cation (+)
(inorganic)Buffers compound stabilize pH (convert strong acids and bases into weak ones)
organic compounds Carbon and hydrogren atoms
Carboxyl group acts as an acid
Amino group can Accept or release H's, can form bonds
Hydroxyl group link molecules through dehydration synthesis
Phosphate group link molecules store energy high energy bonds
Carbohydrates energy source 2-3% body mass
Glucose most important metabolic fuel in body
Disaccharides 2 sugar molecules (G+..)
polysaccharides long chain sugars
Lypids fats and oils
fatty acids long carbon change with H's engergy
Prostaglandins direct cellular activities
Glycerides energy source
steroids hormones -
Created by: byorgey