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sonography lecture

anastamosis connection of the two hollow or tubular structures
aneurysm localized balloon like enlargement of an artery
atheroma fatty deposit within an arterial wall
atherosclerosis hardening and narrowing of arteries due to plaque build-up
arteriosclerosis abnormal hardening of arterial walls
bifurcation having two branches or divisions, forked
lumen channel or opening within the vessel through which blood flows
occlusion closed state or blockage
plaque build up of cholesterol or fat within the arterial wall
stenosis abnormal narrowing of vessel
syncope brief loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia, loos of oxygen
tortuous having many twists or turns
thrombus blood clot attached to interior wall of a vein or artery
anechoic without echoes, ex. blood
hypoechoic low level echoes, ex. thyroid
hyperechoic high level of echoes, ex. bone
homogeneous all the same level of echoes
heterogeneous many different echo levels
doppler evaluation of the presence, speed and character of blood flow within the vessels
aliasing the wrapping around of the spectral waveform that can result from high velocity of blood flow, nyquist limit is exceeded
overall gain when the image is too dark to too light overall
focus this optimizes your gray scale image by providing a clearer image, and optimizing your color image as well
doppler angle this should be set between 45 and 60 degrees to achieve an accurate velocity measurement
sample volume gate (SVG) should be placed midstream (center of the vessel) angle cursor parallel to the blood flow and the gate set between 1.5-2 mm
wall filter will increase or decrease echoes present due to wall thumping *always set on low
heal-toe rocking this is important to do when a vessel is perpendicular to the beam and runs horizontal across the beam
doppler gain adjust the overall gray scale of the doppler spectral wave form
doppler effect a shift in frequency caused by motion ( moving RBC's) *sound of train from far away to close to you
doppler acceleration to deceleration to diacrotic notch to peak velocity to boundary layer(envelope) to diastole
sweep speed changes spped of the doppler spectral display
doppler gain knob that controls the strength of the doppler signal displayed
PRF (pulse repetition frequency) if low, doppler aliases....if high, signal is too small to assess
baseline controls level of baseline on the spectral doppler display
invert switch inversts doppler signal from above to below the baeline
Created by: lgibbs