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GrossAnatomy

JOINTS

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 types of joints? 1. fibrous 2. cartilaginous 3. synovial
what percentage of your joints are synovial joints? 90%
what are the characteristics of synovial joints? highly moveable and they all have synovial capsule surrounding the entire joint (synovial membrane) which secretes synovial fluid and cartilage which pads the ends of the articulating bones.
what is a synovial capsule? collagenous structure that surrounds the entire joint
what is the synovial membrane? the inner layer of epithelial tissue of the capsule which secretes synovial fluid. there is blood supply here so oxygen gets in indirectly.
what is hyaline cartilage? cartilage which pads the ends of the articulating bones
what are the 3 things synovial joints have? 1. synovial capsule 2. synovial membrane 2. hyaline cartilage
what is synovial fluid? lubricating liquid that has a consistency of snot (thick and slippery). these surfaces move past one another with minimal friction
what are ligaments? attachments of bone to bone
joints that are not moveable are? 1. cranial joints 2. joints between sacrum and 2 hip bones (sacrohippum joints) 3. teeth
what are periodontal ligaments? ligament that holds teeth down. made of collagen
what happens when you crack your knuckles? increase volume between the ones so pressure drops caused by pulling nitrogen bubbles out of blood.
why can't you crack knuckles right after you crack them once? there is a period of time you need to wait for nitrogen bubbles to go back into solution again
what are fibrous joints? joints help together by ligaments. i.e. teeth= periodontal ligaments
what are articular capsules? articular capsules surround each synovial joint
what part of the bone erodes? cartilage, but this does not have to do with old age
what are cartilagenous joints? connection between articulating bones. i.e. vertebrae, chest(sternum)
3 types of synovial joints are? 1. hinge joint 2. condyloid joints 3. ball and socket joints
example of hinge joint elbow and knee
what kind of movement does hinge joint have? flexion/extension
examples of condyloid joints wrist/phalanges
what kind of movement does condyloid joints have? flexion/extension adduction/abduction circumduction
examples of ball and socket joints shoulder and hip
what kind of movement does ball and socket have? flexion/extension adduction/abduction internal and external rotation
how stable are mobile joints? most mobile joints are least stable
First Class lever weight and force are on opposite sides of the fulcrum. muscle on either side of fulcrum. very rare in the body
examples of first class lever skull and atlas vertebrae of the spine
Second Class lever load is between the fulcrum and the force. weight is on the side of the fulcrum
examples of second class lever pushing or pulling across the heel of the foot
third class lever force is between the fulcrum and load. used 90% of the time by muscles.
examples of third class lever elbow joint.picking up something or fishing
what happens to the muscles when you do work? even the long ones shorten about .5-1 inch
what is the disc? fiber cartilage. it is flexible but has higher collagen component. it is still, but compressible. it is hard to repair than regular cartilage
what is a meniscus? knee disc. makes joints fit together better. keeps them froms liding off by creating a concave place for the heads of bones to fit
what is a labrum? shoulder disc. fiber cartilage that runs around glenoid. it makes the surface that the shoulder is sitting in bigger and more concave
what is TMJ? jaw disc. can open jaw and then open it even further. you can feel it drop and swing forward.
articular disc allow for jaw to? open further, drop, and swing forward
what happens when someone has TMJ? usually from chewing gum. basically occurs when there is a loose disc in the fossa. it sits into position and snaps back.
do discs wear out? yes! as you get older, discs wear out
what areas of your body have the most stress? knees, hips, and shoulders
how many ligaments to most important joints have? about half a dozen
what is bursa? fluid-filled sac, lined with synovial membranes, that occurs near a joint. allows the skin to move around.
what is bursitis? inflammation of bursa. if the bursa become inflammed then it fills up with fluid.
what is articular cartilage? aka hyaline cartilage that has its surface moving past each other. there no is no blood supply nor nerve supply. important in movement of one bone against another.
Created by: dyoungee