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GrossAnatomy

Bone Structure

QuestionAnswer
what is bone? connective tissue
what does bone start off by? spinning a matrix of collagen
what do you impregnate the bone with? crystals of CALCIUM and MAGNESIUM
What is an osteoblast? cells that make new bone
What is a chondroblast? cartilage cells that make new cartilage
What is a fibrolblast? cells that make new collage
what is an osteoclast? cells that dissolve bone
what is a chondroclast? there is no such thing! osteoclasts dissolve cartilage (though you usually don't)
what are osteocytes? cells in a resting phase. the cells are alive, need nutrients, and have waste products. BUT they are neither producing new bone, nor dissolving bone.
what is special about osteocytes? they can become osteoblasts when need arises. if they are stimulated, they can stop being in the resting phase and start producing bone again.
how do osteoclasts dissolve bone? with acids and enzymes via external digestion. they basically excrete or secrete materials that dissolve the bone.
what are the features of bone that make it considered a tissue? blood vessels, nerves, etc
what are features of bone that make it unique as a tissue? contrary to other tissues, it is really solid and crystalline
what problems arise for bone because it is solid and crystalline? in growing, changing, and adapting. because of this,bone has a unique way of handling things
What is Wolff's law? bone structure wil reflect the pressures acting on it. Living tissue is ale to change in response to pressures.
According to Wolff's law, if you keep loading a bone and stresses are applied to certain areas, what will happen? over the weeks, the bone will start laying down new bone along those areas that are being stressed the most. THe bone is able to sense where it is needed and will get thicker.
what type of cells sense the pressure on bone and start laying down bone? osteoblasts
what kind of pressure has to be on bone for the osteoblasts to start laying down bone? intermittent pressure, but something you do all day.
what happens if there is constant pressure on a bone? the bone will dissolve
when you started to lose your baby teeth, why did just the top of the baby tooth come out? the root dissolved by the pressure on the new tooth coming in underneath
what do we need calcium for in our body? muscle contraction, action potentials, nervous system, muscles, exocytosis (cell product). BASICALLY ANY CELL PRODUCT SENT OU TOF THE CELL (CALCIUM MEDIATED EXOCYTOSIS)
what are two absolutely needed things in our body? calcium and vitaminD. you have to have vitamin D and calcium and keep replacing them. you always have to be remodeling out bones
where does our body take calcium from in our body? from our bones because our body does not trust us to eat enough calcium in a form that is usable by our bodies. so PLAN A is to take calcium from our bones, use it by dissolving our bones and run our nerves, muscles, and cells.
what is the use of calcium in our body? OUR BODY USES THE CALCIUM FROM OUR BONE FIRST AND THEN REPLACES IT LATER. our body does not use the calcium that we eat, but from our bones.
Why ca you see through older skeleton? the center got really thin from the lack of pressure on it. IF YOU DON'T USE IT, YOU LOSE IT
What is the diaphysis of bone? the shaft portion
what is the epiphysis of bone? the ends of bone
what is the epiphyseal plate? line between the shaft and the end of the bone. this plate is not in all bone, but most bones will have some form of this
what kind of bone/tissue is the epiphyseal plate? layer of cartilagenous bone/tissue. it is cartilage becuase it is softer and more flexible with more ground substance of more glucosamine and chrondroitin sulfate
what is glucosaminoglycan? sugar proteins that absorb water. it gives the cartilage flexibility.
in order to get taller, what happens in your body? cartilage is stimulated and the cartilage starts to expan and grow. ossification occurs, which changes cartilage into bone. osteoclasts dissolve the cartilage and send osteoblasts to lay down new bone.
when does dissolving of cartilage and laying down of new bone occur? once hormones(testosterone and estrogen) enter. once these hormones come in, they put an end to the epiphyseal growth and it becomes bone (epiphyseal line)
what is epiphyseal line? once hormones arrive at the bone, it puts an end to the epiphyseal growth and then becomes bone
what are the 2 basic structural types of bone? compact and spongy bone
what is compact bone? aka cortical bone. forms the outer shell of all bone and also the shafts in long bones. made up of rod- like units (osteons). outer hard part= cortex or bark. inside part= medulla (medullary) with medullary cavity
what is spongy bone? consists of lattice of thing threads of bone (trabeculae) and is less dense than compact bone.used to be cortical bone but you dissolved the way with osteoclasts until left with what is needed.
what is trabeculae? little structs. line up along the force so you are still able to support the same amount of weight with much less bone. bone is not uniformly solid, but some spaces between its hard elements. orientation of trabeculae depend on mechanical stress
what is a periosteum? membrane that lines the outer surface of all bone (except joints of long bone). where you distribute load throughout.
what are the Sharpey's fibers? strong collagenous fibers that attach periosteum to bone
where does your muscles and ligaments attach? periosteum
what is an osteon? functional unit of compact bone. consists of concentric layers (lamellae) of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal (haversian canal)
why do you not want a lot of weight where the joints are being compressed? when you move joints you don't want to be swinging them like clubs. that is why the ends are made of spongy bone so that all the weight woul dbe accounted for at the biggest part of the bone and change the velocities.
what is the main idea regarding the ends of the bones? to be lightweight WITHOUT being weaker
processes of making bone 1. angiogenesis 2. something hormonal has to occur to send a message and sprout a new artery 3. lay down new bone like onion rings around the artery(lamella) called osteon (circular structure) and side canals 4.dissolve parts you don't need
what happens if you stress a part a lot? it'll keep laying down more and more according to demand
what is calcium homeostasis? keeps enough calcium in our blood to run nervous system/muscle/cellular properties. constant tearing down and building up that our skeletal system goes through. it is a constant process in our body.
what is calcium homeostasis dependent on ? vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin. these three are secreted by endocrine system and need in balance so that we have enough calcium for our blood.
what is bone remodeling? occurs when you damage or grow bone. if you break a bone, you want to put a bone back.
what responds to long term pressures? all connective tissues, collagen, ground substance, cartilage
what is osteoarthritis? damage to cartilage and bone growth around the side.
what is grafting? placing new bone or replacement material into spaces below or around broken bone (fracture) or in holes in bone (defects) to aid in healing.
Created by: dyoungee