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Blood

Blood terms etc

HintAnswer
Formed Elements of Blood Red Blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets
Erythrocytes Red blood cells
Leukocytes White blood cells
Thrombocytes platelets
Packed cell volume or hematocrit volume percent of red blood in whole blood
Average hematocrit for a man 45%
Generalized functions of blood Transport hormones nutrients, enzymes, buffers regulating body heat,
blood percentage of two major blood components 55% plasma, 45% formed elements
Average blood volume men 8% of total body weight or 5-6 liters Women 8% of total body weight or 4-5 liters
Plasma liquid part of the blood minus the blood cells
Serum liquid part of blood minus the blood cells and clotting elements
How is hematocrit (packed cell volume) determined? centrifuge to seperate plasma and red blood
Primary component of red blood cells hemoglobin
Average red blood cell counts men 5,500,000 per cubic millimeter, women 4,800,000 per cubic millimeter
function of red blood cells critcal role in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body
where red blood cells are formed adult- red bone marrow embryo- spleen, liver, fetal yolk sac
where red blood cells are destroyed liver, spleen, bone, marrow
structure of hemoglobin four protein chains each with a heme group. Each heme group contains one iron. Therefore each hemoglobin contains 4 iron atoms
erythropoiesis process of red blood cell formation
erythropoietin hormone produced by kidney that promotes production of red blood cells
bilirubin enzyme produced by liver used in the processesing of beta kerotine
CBC (Complete Blood Count) collection of tests whose results when interpreted as a whole can yeild enormous amounts of information regarding a person's health
5 types of leukocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes (Never Eat Bannanas Like Monkeys)
Order of 5 leukocytes in number from most to least Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bannanas)
Two main classes of Leukocytes Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
3 types of leukocytes classified as granulocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
2 types of leukocytes classified as Agranulocytes lymphocytes and monocytes
average number of white blood cells 5,000-9,000 per cubic millimeter
where white blood cells are formed red bone marrow
3 main physical properties of platelets agglutination, adhesiveness, and aggregation
average platelet count about 250,000 per cubic millimeter
function of platelets hemostasis and blood clotting
formation of platelets red bone marrow, lungs and from fragmentation of megakaryotypes by the spleen
antigens substance that when introduced into the body causes formation of anitbodies against it
antibodies substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a specific substance (antigen) that has entered the body
Blood types A, B, AB, O
Rh positive Rh antigen is present
Rh negative no Rh antigen present
Universal Donor Type O
Universal recipient Type AB
Erythroblastosis fetalis When mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+ the mother's anitbodies react with the baby's Rh + cells
RhoGAM protein marked injection so help stop a Rh- mother's body producing antigens against the next Rh+ baby
Composition of blood plasma 90% water 10% solutes (solutes are 8% proteins: Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen and 2% other: ions, nutrients, waste, gases, regulatory substances)
coumadin blood thinner
heparin antithrombin blood thinner produced by the body
5 Functions of blood O2 from lungs to cells Nutrients Transports wastes Regulates body temperature Regulates Ph of body fluids Prevents blood loss Prevents infection
Plasma CELLULAR FLUID non formed part of blood (55%) that is non living + water/Ions/Nutrients/Wastes/Proteins(FIBRINOGEN)
Serum Plasma WITHOUT FIBRINOGEN (clotting protein)
Neutrophil Active Phagocyte - number increases during short term infections
Lymphocyte part of immune system'B' lymphocyte - antibodies 'T' Lymphocyte graft rejection, fighting tumors & viruses
Monocyte Active Phagocyte that become Macrophages in tissues - Long term 'clean up team'
Eosinophil Kill parasitic worms: increase during allergy attacks might phagocytize antigen antibody
Basophil Granules contain Histamine (vasodilator) which is discharged at sight of inflammation
Lymphoid Tissue Spleen or Thymus
Hemocytoblast Stem Cell
Myeloid Cell Derived from Hemosytoblast (stem cell) Forms Myeloblast and Monoblast
Myeloblast Forms Promyelocyte
Promyelocyte Forms Eosinophils Neutrophils Basophils
Monoblast Forms Promonocyte
Prolymphocyte Forms Lymphocytes and some plasma cells
Lymphoblast Forms Prolymphocyte
Promonocyte Forms Monocytes - some become wandering Macrophages
Erythropoiesis Genesis of new red blood cells
RBC's production stimulated by? Hypoxia (inadequate o2 to the tissues)
Erythropoiten released by? Kidney (and liver to smaller extent)
Erythropoietin stimulates? Red bone marrow to produce RBC
Normoblast Precursor to Erythrocyte in immature state - Body pushing RBC out too fast
Hemoblast Blood forming cells
Thromboplastin Lipoprotein complex: released from damaged tissue
Prothrombin Plasma protein: synthesized by liver-formation requires Vit K
Thrombin Enzyme that induces clotting by converting Fibrinogen to Fibrin
Fibrin Fibrous insoluble protein formed during the clotting of blood - synthesized by the liver
Serotonin Chemical messenger - vasoconstrictor
Prostoglandin Attracts platelets/vasoconstrictor
Megakaryoblast Precursor of Platelets
Polycythemia High RBC count /Sluggish flow - causes: Bone Marrow cancer/high altitude
Hemophilia Prolonged bleeding
Hemophilia Type A Low in clotting factor VIII (83%)
Hemophilia Type B Low in clotting factor IX
Hemophilia treatment? Give factor injections or transfused blood
Leukemia WBC Cancer - Increased Mitosis of non functional (immature) cells - crowd out other cells
Leukopenia Low WBC count
Leukopenia causes Mitotic inhibitors/high glucocorticoid levels
Intrinsic Factor Surrounds B12 and protects it from acid environment in stomach
B12 Important for formation of RBC and maintenance of CNS
Created by: gdemuth
 

 



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