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A&PII Special Senses

Review for Special Senses and Endocrine System

Define Hormone Steroidal or amino acid based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific functions
Define Otolith A jelly-like mass studded with calcium carbonate crystals
Define Saccule Is continuous with the membranous labbyrinth extending anteriorly into the cochlea
Define Prostaglandin A lipid-based chemical messenger synthesized by most tissue cells that acts locally as a paracrine
Define Epinephrine Chief hormone produced by the adrenal medulla
How can a hormone affect one cell, but not another in the same region? Each hormone has a chemical structure htat activates only the cells it fits with. When the hormone meets the cells its intended to affect, it can elicit a specific response in that type of cell only.
Describe Hans Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) and explain its effects on the body. 3 stages:1.Alarm-"fight or flight" response 2.Resistance-adaptation part of syndrome 3.Exhaustion-if constant & serious death may occur.Alarm-increase adrenaline, resistance-people try to adapt, body may change to cope, Exhaustion-could lead to
The secretion of __________is most affected by light Melatonin
Arachicdonic acid is the precursor of? All prostaglandins
Which is known as the "second messenger"? cAMP
Clouding of the lens is known as? Cataracts
Which term is not associated with this group?a.perilymph b.scala vestibuli c.rod d.endolymph e.round window Rod
Which type of gland is associated with the external ear? Cerumonious
What "dampens" waves in the perilymph? Force of stapes on the membranous labyrinth
Which is most important in night vision?a.Rods b.cones c.choroid d.lens e.macula lutea Rods
Which would be found in the anterior chamber of the eye?a.vitreous humor b.aqueous humor c.perilymph d.endolymph e.cerebrospinal fluid Aqueous humor
Which could be found in lacrimal fluid?a.ADH b.lysozyme c.HCl d.Au e.tiny pieces of the retina that have broken loose Lysozyme
Which tunic is most important in maintaining the shape of they eye?a.retina b.choroid c.lens d.scelera e.superior oblique muscle Scelera
Lacriaml fluid usually drains into the?a.nasal cavity b.gastric pits c.anterior chamber d.blood vessels of the carotid artery Nasal cavity
Which is not a basic taste?a.sweet b.sour c.salt d.bitter e.chocolate Chocolate
Which cranial nerve is not involved with a special sense?a.vagus b.optic c.olfactory d.glossopharyngeal e.facial Vagus
Term that refers to the bending of light? Refraction
Hormone primairly responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate? Thyroine
Hypothalamic relasing hormones are? Transported by portal veins to the anterior pituitary
What do testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone all have in common? They are amino acid derivatives
Which does not belong in this group of terms?a.thyroid b.pituitary c.pancreas d.stomach e.adrenals Stomach
Which is an antagonistic to calcitonin?a.TSH b.GH c.PTH d.ADH e.ACTH PTH
Which hormone would not be involved with this group of hormones?a.oxytocin b.LH c.follicle stimulating hormone d.prolactin GH
Which would not be released by the adrenal gland?a.mineralcorticoids b.gluccorticoids steroids d.epinephrine e.ADH Mineralcorticoids
Which works most closely with the sympathetic "fight or flight" response?a.adrenal cortex b.adrenal medulla c.thyroid gland d.pineal gland e.pancreas Adrenal medulla
Define Photoreceptor Specialed receptor cells that respond to light energy; rods and cones
Define Malleus Is a hammer shaped small bone of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to innere surface of the eardrum
Define Olfaction Has to do with our sense of smell
Why do our eyes water when we get a common "cold"? The nasal cavity mucosa is continuous with that of the lacrimal duct system, a cold often causes the lacrimal mucosa to become inflamed adn swell. This swelling constricts the ducts and prevents tears from draining from the eye surface
Describe three basic chemical classifications of hormones and describe how each acts on target cells. autocrine-signals itself thru a chemical that it synthesizes&then responds 2.Paracrine-Chemical signals that diffuse into the area & interact with receptors on nearby cells. Endocrine-Chemicals are secreted into blood & tissue fluids 2 cells they act upon
Blood vessles are found in which part of the eye?a.cornea b.lens c.choroid d.aqueous humour Choroid
Part of eye that is made up of nervous tissue is?a.scelera b.choroid c.iris d.retina Retina
The function of the lacrimal apparatus is to? Secrete tears
Which is not part of the bony labyrinth?a.semicirucular canals b.malleus c.vestibule d.cochlea Malleus
Major function of the utricle and saccule in the vestibule is? Detect position of the head
The semicircular canals are in __________ planes of the body? 3
Movement of hair cells in the organ of corti against the __________ membrane can stimulate nerve impulse conduction Tectorial
The olfactory nerve carries impulses associated with? Smell
Which is not one of the four taste sensations?a.acid b.sour.c.bitter d.sweet Sour
Hyposecretion of GH in children results in? Pituitary dwarfism
Melanocyte stimulating hormone affects? Skin color
The production of glucocorticoids is stimulated by antor hormone from? Anterior pituitary
Which of the following is not a possible role played by hormones? Symbiotic
What part of the nervous system acts to accelerate the rage of adrenal medulla hormone discarge Sympathetic division of ANS
An abnormally high metabolic rate could be associated with the functioning of? Thyroid gland
Gland that serves in both an exocrine and endocrine capacity is? Pancreas
Hormones produced by the islands of Langerhans affect the body's utilization of? Glucose
The adrenal gland is to the kidneys as the parathyroid gland is to the? Thyroid
Mechanoreceptors are to pressure as photoreceptors are to? Light
Which organs consist of small areas of mucous epithelium on either side of the nasal septum? Olfactory
Which of the following is not a type of papillae on the human tongue?a.filiform b.ovulate c.fungiform d.circumvallate Ovulate
What cartilagnious structure surrounds the external auditory meatus of the ear? Pinna
Waxy material in the ear is product of? Cerumnious glands
The organ of hearing is housed within? The vestibule
Which of the following is not a layer of the eye?a.fibrous tunic b.connective tunic c.vascular tunic d.neural tunic Connective tunic
Contraction of the iris changes the size of the? Pupil
The anterior and posterior portions of the eye contain a fluid called? Aqueous humour and vitreous humor
Which structures are black and white sensitive; and which one are color sensitive? Rods and cones
Night blindness is treated with? Vitamin A
Visual pigment are derivatives of the compound? Rhodopsin
Hormones change all but which of the following characteristics of enzymes?a.identity b.activity c.quantity of production Site of production
The thyroid hormones are all structural derivatives of the amino acid __________ and contains the element __________? Thyroxine and iodine
The most noteable stimulus for the release of ADH is? A rise in blood electrolyte and fall in blood pressure or volume
To decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys is the primary function of what hormone? ADH
Created by: 633065182



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