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Ch 2 Chem


Matter Has mass, occupies space
3 states of matter liquid, solid, gas
Atomic Structure Nucleus, Electrons, Protons
Nucleus Protons (+) , Neutrons (no change)
Electron (-) Orbiting the nucleus, in shells (orbitals, have a negative electrical charge
Protons (+) have positive electrical charge
Neutrons are neutral, uncharged
Atomic Number number of protons (smaller #)
Atomic Weight (Mass) number of protons and neutrons
Isotopes variation in the # of neutronsHalf lifetime it takes for half of the element to decay
Atomic Symbol Letter abbreviation1st letter capitalized2nd letter lower case
Electrons shells outer rings that circle the atom
Chemical Bonding taking smaller to make larger (anabolic)
Ionic Bonding gain and loss of an electrons ie..Na + Cl = NaCl
Ion (electrolytes) Charged element
Cation has a positive charge ie...Na+
Anion has a negative chargeie...Cl-
Covalent Bonding sharing of electrons between 2 elements
Non polar equal sharing of e-
Polar unequal sharing of e-
Hydrogen Bonding H bonds to either O or N that is already in a molecule or compound
Molecule 2 like elements coming together
Compound 2 or more different elements
Chemical Reaction metabolism- building up or breaking down
Potential energy stored energy
Kinetic energy energy being used
Factors effecting chemical reaction rates 1. Temperature 2. Size 3. Concentration 4. pH 5. Biological Catalyst (enzyme)
Acid release a hydrogen (H+) ion (proton)
Base accepts hydrogen ion proton (H+)release hydroxylions (OH-)
Buffers (resist small change in the pH of solutions)weak acid or weak base that will either release or accept hydrogen ions to maintain the pH with a range
Created by: cortney0217