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Human Geo Chpt three

AP Human Geography Chapter three Culture,language, religion,ethnicity,gender

Acculturation The adoptin by an ethnic group of enough of the ways of the host society to be able to function economically and socially.
Assimilation The complete blending of an ethnic group into the host society resulting in the loss of all distinctive ethnic traits.
Cultural adaptation when a new group adapts to their surroundings
cultural core/periphery pattern The core-periphery idea that the core houses main economic power of region and the outlying region or periphery houses lesser economic ties
Cultural ecology the study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they occupy.
Cultural identity is the identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as one is influenced by one's belonging to a group or culture
Cultural landscape The visible imprintof human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of varous human occupants.
Culture realm A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems: a majorworld area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.
Culture A society's collective beliefs, symbols, values, forms of behavior and social organizations, together with its tools, structures and artifacts created according to the group's condition of life.
Cultural region formal, functional, vernacular (perceptual)-a formal or functional region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.
Expansion Diffusion The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
Relocation Diffusion Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves spreading of innovations by immigrants.
Innovation adoption introduction of new ideas, practices, objects usually an alteration of custom or culture within a social group.
Maladaptive diffusion Diffusion of a process with negative side effects or What works well in one region may not in another
Sequent Occupance Refers to such cultural succession and its lasting imprint proposed by Derwent Whittlesey
Adaptive strategies The unique wayin which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of cuture that serve to provide the necessities of life, food, clothing, shelter and defense.
Architectural form is both the process and product of planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social and aesthetic considerations
Built Environment That part of the physical landscape that represents materrial culture; the buildings, roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape.
folk culture The body of institutions, customs, dress, arifacts, collective wisdoms, and traditions of a homogeneous, isolated, largely self-sufficient and relatively static social group.
Folklore Oral traditions of a folk culture, including tales, fables, legends, customary observations and moral teachings.
Material culture The tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles and technologies.
Nonmaterial culture The oral traditions, songs and stories of a culture group aloong with its beliefs and customary behaviors.
popular culture The constantly changing mix of material and nonmaterial elements available through mass production and the mass media to an urbanized heterogeneous, nontraditional society.
survey systems distinct system to land surveying
Traditional Architecture to indicate originality within a culture or long-term part of an indigenous society. It is the opposite of modernized, superimposed, or changed; it denotes continuity and historic association.
Creole A Language derived from a pidgin language that has acquired a fuller vocabulary and become the native laguage of its speakers.
Dialect a distinctive local or regional variant of a language that remains mutually intelligible to speakers of other dialects of that language, a subtype of a language.
Isogloss The border of usage of an individual word or pronunciation.
Language A mutually agreed on system of symbolic communication that has a spoken and usually a written expression.
Language family A group of related languages derived from a common ancestor.
Language group a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Lingua franca An existing, well established language of communication and commerce used widely where it is not a mother tongue.
Linguistic diversity is simply one which is in wide use as a primary form of communication by a specific group of living people. 5,000 - 10,000 different types
monolingual A society's or country's use of only one language of communication for all purposes.
multilingual The common use of two or more languages in a society or country.
Official language A governmentally designated language of instruction of government, of the courts, and otehr official public and private communication.
Pidgin An auxillary language derived, with reduced vocabulary and simplified structure, from other languages. Not a native tongue, used for limited communication among people with different languages.
Toponymy The place names of a region or, especially, the study of place names.
Trade language A language, especially a pidgin, used by speakers of different native languages for communication in commercial trade
Animism A belief that natural objects may be the abode of dead people, spirits, or gods who occasionally give the objects the appearance of life.
Buddhism A universalizing religion, primarily of eastern and central asia, based on teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha that suffering is inherent in all life but can be relieved by mental and moral self-purification.
Cargo cult pilgrimage Cargo Cult’s believe western goods have been traded to them by ancestral spirits. It takes place in Melanesia and is important go HG because it’s a big religious movement by a large number of people.
Christianity A monotheistic, universalizing religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ and of the Bible as sacred scripture.
Confucianism A Chinese value system and ethnic religion emphasizing ethics, social morality, tradition and ancestor worship.
Ethnic religion A religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it. Such a religion does not seek converts.
Exclave A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country.
Enclave A small bit of foreign terriktory lying within a stat but not under its jurisdiction.
fundamentalism A movement to return to the founding principles of a religion, which can include literal interpretation of sacred texts, or the attempt to follow the ways of a religious founder as closely as possible.
Geomancy The chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings and cities. Structures and objects are positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi in favorable ways.
Hajj The muslim pilgrimige to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Hinduism One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4,000 years and originating in the Indus Valley
Interfaith boundaries Boundaries within a single major faith.
Islam The youngest of the major world religions Islamis based on the teachings of Muhammad. He received the truth directly from Allah written then in the Koran
Jainism religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life. It affects HG because a lot of people believe in it in India.
Judaism a monotheistic, ethnic religion first developed among the Hebrew people of the ancient Near East; its determining conditions include descent from Isreal, the Torah and tradition.
Landscapes of the Dead visible regional variables, for different religions and cultures dispose of their dead in different manners
Monotheism/polytheism belieg in one god/ believe in many gods
Mormonism a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is important because a lot of people around the world practice Mormonism
muslim pilgrimage If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Makkah. (Mecca) They usually make the trip around Ramadan. This pilgrimage is also referred to as Hajj.
proselytic religion A religion that actively seeks converts and has the goal of converting all humankind.
Reincarnation after this life you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or a human life. So basically what you do in this life will affect what your next life is like.
Religion Defined by geographers Robert Stoddard and Carolyn Prorak in the book Geography in America as "a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate prioriteis"
Religious architectural styles These are the styles of architecture created by the religions. For example, Christians have always made temples, and Buddhists have always made a lot of religious statues.
Religious culture hearth This is where most religions are born. Most major religions have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few have come from India too. This is important to HG because where religions are created, civilizations are too.
Religious conflict this is the conflicts between religions. One of these is Israel-Palestine. This consists of Roman Takeovers, Muslim conquests, and the crusades. This affects HG because there has been a lot of bloodshed over Religious Conflict
Religious toponym This refers to the origin and meaning of the names of religions. This is important to HG because many names mean significant things including beliefs of cultures
Sacred Space Place or space that people infuse with religious meaning.
Secularism The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife. A secular state is the opposite of a theocracy.
Shamanism Community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman-a religious leader, teacher, healer and visionary. At times an especially strong shaman might attract a regional following. However, most shamans remain local figures.
Sharia Law The system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu'ranic Law. Unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, Sharia is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran.
Shintoism Located in Japan and related to Buddhism Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Sikhism a sect of Hinduism
Sunni Adherents to the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalis. believfe in the effectivemess of family and community in the solution of life's problems and differ from the Shiites.
Shiites Adherents of one of two division of Islam. also known as Shia, represent the Persian variation believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali.
Taoism believed to have been founded by Lao-Tsu and based upon his book entitled "Tao-te-ching" focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature.
Theocracy A stat whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided, or of a group of religious leaders as in post-Khomeini Iran.
Universalizing A belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope. Adherents of universalizing religious systems often believe that their religion represents universal truths.
Zoroastrianism The religion states that active participation in life through good thoughts, good words, and good deeds is necessary to ensure happiness and to keep chaos at bay. This active participation is a central element in Zoroaster's concept of free will
Dowry Death In the context of arranged marriages, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom(the dowry)have, some extreme cases, led to the death of the bride.
Enfranchisement the franchise is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right
Gender gap unbalanced sex ratio or economic gap between the sexes
infanticide is the practice of intentionally killing an infant
Longevity gap is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy "
Maternal mortality rate the number of women in child birth that die each year.
barrio a ward, quarter, or district of a city or town in a Spanish-speaking country
Chain migration the tendency of people to migrate along channels, over a period of time, from specific source areas to specific destinations.
cultural adaptation is the evolutionary process by which an individual modifies his personal habits and customs to fit in to a particular culture
Cultural shatterbelt a politically unstable region where differing cultural elements come into contact and conflict.
Ethnic cleansing A process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnic conflict a conflict between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism.
ethnic enclave a small area occupied by a destinctive minority culture
Ethnic group a group of people who share a common ancestry and cultural tradition, often living as a minority group in a larger society.
Ethnic homeland a sizable area inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often excercises some measure of political and social control over it
Ethnic landscape the spatial distribuions and interactions of ethnic groups and of the cultural characteristics on which they are based.
Ethnic neighborhood a voluntary community where people of like origin reside by choice
ethnicity affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture
ethnocentrism conviction of the evident superiority of one's own ethnic group.
ghetto a forced or voluntarily segregated residential area housing a racial ethnic or religious minority.
Plural society a society combining ethnic contrasts: the economic interdependence of those groups
race identification with a group of people descended from a common ancestor
segregation a measure of degree to which members of a minority group are not uniformly distributed among the total population.
social distance a measure of the perceived degree of social separation between individuals, ethnic groups, neighborhoods or other groupings; the voluntary or enforced segregation of two or more distinct social groups for most activities.
Created by: kimdudek
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