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Human Geo chapt two

AP Human Geography Population

Age Distribution A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid.
Carrying capacity The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support.
Cohort A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Demographic equation An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration.
Demographic momentum The tendency for population growth to continue despite stringent family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years.
Demographic regions study of population characteristics by region
Demographic Transition Model Demographic transition model a sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
Dependency ratio The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form n:100, where n equals the number of dependents.
Diffusion of fertility control spreading of fertility control from one place to another over time.
Disease diffusion spreading of disease from one place to another
Doubling Time Time period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely.
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupided by permanent human settlement.
Epidemiological Transition Model Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Gendered space genderd space is where genders are seperated into different places
Infant mortality rate The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
J-curve J-curve is used in several different fields to refer to a variety of unrelated J-shaped diagrams where a curve initially falls, but then rises to higher than the starting point
Maladaption an inherent tendency for an organism's adaptations to degenerate would translate into maladaptations
Malthus, Thomas Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.
Mortality number of deaths per year ususally per 1,000
Natality birth rate/ deaths per live births
Neo-Malthusian Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations.
Overpopulation A value judgment based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area's current population.
Population densities A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area.
Population distributions description of locations on the Earth's surface where populations lives.
Population explosion the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase.
Population projection a statement of a population future size, age and sex composition based on the application of stated assummptions to current data.
Population pyramid A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
rate of natural increase The difference between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country.
S-Curve A type of curve which shows the growth of a variable in terms of another variable, often expressed as units of time. For example, an S-curve of the growth of company sales for a new product would show a rapid, exponential increase in sales for a period ti
Sex ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Standard of Living a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone or some group; "they enjoyed the highest standard of living in the country"; "the lower the standard of living the easier it is to introduce an autocratic production system
sustainability to keep in existence to maintain
underpopulation lacking the normal population density
Zero population growth Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs.
Activity space The area within which people move freely on their rounds of regular activity.
Chain migration Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Cyclic movement movement -for example, nomadic migration that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally.
Distance decay The declining intensity of any activity, process, or function with increasing distance from its point of origin.
Forced migration Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Gravity model A matematical prediction of the interaction between two bodies as a function of their size and of the distance separating them. Based on Newton's law of universal gravitation, the model states that attraction is proportional to the product of the masses
Internal migration The permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within a particular country.
Intervening opportunity An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that increases migration.
migration Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Intercontinental migration permanent movement from one continent/country to another.
Interregional migration Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Rural Urban migration describes interregional migration as an example from rural to urban life.
migratory movement consists of changes in a society that results from the social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Periodic movement for example, college attendence or military service - that involves temporary, recurrent relocation.
Personal space An invisible, usually irregular area around a person into which he or she does not willingly admit others. The sense of personal space is a situational and cultural variable.
Place Utility In human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual's perceived satisfaction or approval of a place in its social, economic or environmental attributes.
Push-pull factors Factors that induce people to move to a new location. Factors that induce people to leave old residences.
Refugee People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Space- time prism A diagram of the volume of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by constraints of our bodily needs and the means of mobility at our command.
Step migration A migration in which an eventual long-distance relocation is undertaken in stages as, for example, from farm to village to small town to city.
Transhumance The seasonal movement of people and their livestock over short distances for example to high grounds during summer and lower grounds during winter.
Transmigration to cause to go from one state of existence or place to another
Voluntary migration Movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area-the opposite of forced migration.
cornucopians individuals that are critics of Malthus's theory and believe that human beings are, in fact, our greatest resource and that attempts to curb our numbers miguidedly cheat us out of geniuses who could devise creative solutions to our resource shortages.
Created by: kimdudek
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