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APK 2100 Cells

Anatomy Chapter 2 s.a.p.

Plasma Membrane Serves as an external barrier; acts as transport of substances into or out of the cell; externally facing proteins act as receptors (for hormones, neurotransmitters, etc) and in cell-to-cell recognition.
Cytoplasm Cellular region between the nuclear and plasma membranes; consists of fluid cytosol containing dissolved solutes, inclusions (stored nutrients, pigment granules), and organelles, the metabolic machinery of the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes The sites of protein synthesis.
Rough ER Makes proteins that are secreted from the cell; makes the cell's membrane.
Smooth ER Site of lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detox.
Golgi Apparatus Packages, modifies, and segregates proteins for secretion from the cell, inclusion in lysosomes, and incorporation into the plasma membrane.
Lysosomes Sites of intracellular digestion.
Mitochondria Site of ATP synthesis; powerhouse of the cell.
Peroxisomes Enzymes that detoxify a number of toxic substances; catalase (the most important enzyme) breaks down hydrogen peroxide.
Microtubules Support the cell and give it shape; involved in intracellular and cellular movements; form centrioles.
Microfilaments Involved in muscle contraction and other types of intracellular movement; help form the cell's cytoskeleton.
Intermediate Filaments The stable cytoskeletal elements; resist tension forces acting on the cell.
Centrioles Organize a microtubule network during mitosis to form spindle and asters; form the bases of cilia and flagella.
Nucleus Control center of the cell; responsible for transmitting genetic information and providing the instructions for protein synthesis.
Nuclear Envelope Separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and regulates passage of substances to and from the nucleus.
Nucleoli Site of ribosome subunit manufacture.
Chromatin Granular, threadlike material composed of DNA and histone proteins; DNA that constitutes the genes.
Cytoskeleton An elaborate network of rods running throughout the cytosol, acting as a cell's "bones", "muscles", and "ligaments". (The three types of rods are microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.)
Microtubules (Cytoskeleton) Elements with the largest diameter, hollow tubes made of spherical protein subunits called tubulins.
Microfilaments (Cytoskeleton) Elements with the thinnest structure, made of strands of the protein actin.
Intermediate Filaments Most stable and permanent of the (cytoskeleton) elements, made of tough, insoluble protein fibers.
Created by: 1437437180



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