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Lec 24- embryology

QuestionAnswer
2 major points on embryology 1. the eye is formed from ectoderm (neural and surface) and mesenchyme 2. induction is responsible for the dev of many ocular structures
3 germ layer of emybryonic dev ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
how is the neural plate formed? formed from the thicken ectoderm on the dorsal surface
what will the neural plate give rise to? CNS and eye
longitudinal groove that forms down the neural plate neural groove
the lateral edges of the neural groove are brought together to form?/ neural folds
the neural folds will fuse to form? neural tube of neural ectoderm
what is surrounded by mesoderm, in which is covered by surface ectoderm on the dorsal surface? neural tube
where are neural crest cells found? b/w the neural tube and the surface ectoderm situated within the mesoderm
what is mesenchyme? a collective term that includes mesoderm and neural crest cells
what small depressions forms on both sides of the forebrain as the neural tube is closing? optic pits
what do the optic pits form on the lateral aspect of the forebrain? optic vesicles
briefly, what is the optic vesicles touching during their lateral expansion? surface ectoderm
the proximal portion of the optic vesicle near the forebrain begins to constrict to form optic stalk
what is continuous with the third ventricle of the brain? the cavity inside the optic vesicle and optic stalk
what is formed from the inferior aspect of the optic stalk and the inferior aspect of the optic vesicle? inferior optic fissure
invagination of the portion of the inferior optic fissure in the optic stalk pulls the anterior portion of the optic vesicle posterioly forming what double layered structure? optic cup
the inferior optic fissure closes and zips itself shut to form the? optic canal
in what arrangment are the inner layer and outer layer of the optic cup? apex-to-apex
what structures cells with the PR? ep of CB, iris pigment ep, apice of RPE cells
the space that separates the nner and outer layers of the optic cup is called? intraretinal space
what does the intraretinal space become? subretinal space
what forms from the inner layer of the optic cup? neural retina, NPE, iris posterior pigmented ep
what forms from the outer layer of the optic cup? RPE, PE, iris anterior pigmented ep
what is induction? the influence that one structure has on another
when the optic vesicle was in contact with the surface ectoderm, the surface ectoderm thickens to form what? lens plate or lens placode
when the lens placode elongates and the center invaginates, what is it forming? the lens pit
when the lens pit invaginates, what hollow circular structure does it form? lens vesicle
the lens vesicle is in the position of what future structure? vitreous chamber
describe the appearance of the lens vesicle hollow; composed of a single layer of cells; surrounded by basal lamina
why is there no posterior epithlium in the adult lens? b/c the posterior lens fiber (aka primarylens fiber) forms the embryonic lens
nuclei of the primary lens fiber moves anteriorly to form what? lens bow
what gives rise to the secondary lens fibers? the anterior ep in the germantive zones at the equator
the region that contains the Y-sutures continues to develop until birth is called? fetal nucleus
what is the adult nucleus? secondary fibers laid down b/w birth and sexual maturity
what is the lens cortex? newly formed fibers surrounding the adult nucleus that contain nuclei
the hyaloids vasculature and other vascular mesenchyme enters the optic stalk and optic vesicle via what? inferior optic fissure
what is the posterior surface of the lens called that the hyaloid basculature forms a plexus around? posterior vascular tunic of the lens
what annular vessel does the posterior vascular tunic of the lens communicate with to form the anterior vascular tunic of the lens? rim of the optic cup
True or false: hyaloid vasculature is usually completely resorbed by birth true
what remnants of the hyaloid arterial system often remains on the lens and optic nerve? Bergmeisters papilla on the optic nerve head; Mittendorf's dot on the posterior surface of the lens
what does the hyaloid vasculature give rise to? the central retinal artery and vein
what induces the choriocapillaris to form from mesenchyme? RPE
what also forms after the choriocapillaris is formed from mesenchyme? sattler's and haller's layers, vortex veins, short posterior ciliary arteries, and the arterial circle of zinn
the pigmented layer of the CB will form ridges that the NPE layer will follow, giving rise to? the ciliary processes of the pars plicata
the CB stromal elements originate from what? neural crest cells
the ciliary muscle is derived from what? mesenchyme
what are the iris dilator and iris sphincter derived from? neural ectoderm
what iris stromal connective tissue and blood vessels form from what? mesenchyme
what does the papillary membrane form between? the lens ep and the corneal ep
what is the papillary membrane derived from? mesenchyme
what 2 structures is usually resorb by birth? papillary membrane and hyaloid vasculature
what accumulates near the ciliary body and iris root at the iridocorneal angle? neural crest cells and mesenchyme
what is the trabecular meshwork derived from? mesenchyme
what is the schlemm's canal derived from? deep scleral plexus
what is referred to as the primary vitreous? the mass of fibrillar material that fills the vitreous cavity
what begins to develop from the neural retina and degenerating hyaloids basculature in vitreous development? secondary vitreous
cloquet's canal spans what anteriorly and posteriorly? anteriorly from the retrolental space to the posterior area of martegani
what gives rise to the attachments at the vitreous base and ligamentum gyaloidea capsulare? secondary vitreous
what is referred to as the tertiary vitreous? the len zonules develop from fibrillar material secreted by NPE
what is the precursor of the optic nerve? optic stalk
invagination of the inferior optic fissure gives rise to what? optic stalk
the outer layer of the optic stalk gives rise to? neuroglial sheath that surrounds the optic nerve
the inner layer of the optic stalk is destroyed by apoptosis to create what? a passageway for axons of the retinal ganglion cells
what is the RPE formed from? outer layer of the optic cup
which is the first layer of the retina to differentiate? RPE
which is the first pigmentation to be visible to the embryo? RPE
what basal surface of the RPE faces what? Brunch's membrane
the apex of the RPE faces what? PR
what is the retina formed from? inner layer of the optic cup
for a short time, what is the thickest region of the retina? the macula
what causes the shallow depression otherwise known as the fovea centralis? the displacement of ganglion cells and inner retinal elements
what needs to happen in order to increase the packing density of the cones within the fovea? inner segments of cones decrease their width; outer segments of cones elongate
how is Henle's fiber layer formed? the synapse of the oblique orientation of the axons (inner fibers) of the cones with the interneurons
what is the last portion of the retina to fully develop? fovea
what induces the formation of the cornea? lens vesicles
what is corneal ep derived from? surface ectoderm
what is corneal endothelium derived from? neural crest cells
the corneal stroma is derived from what? mesenchyme
the scleral originates from condensation of what? mesenchyme
what is located just posterior to the developing eyelinds cornea
what does the secretion of meibomian glands breakdown allowing the separate of eyelids? desmosomes
what parts of the eyelid forms from surface ectoderm? epithelium of the skin; epithelium of conj.; hair follicles and cilia of the eyelid; meibomian glands; glands of zeiss; glands of moll
what parts of the eyelid forms from mesenchyme? tarsal plates; orbicularis oculi muscle; levator palpebrae superioris muscle; superior tarsal muscle of Muller; orbital septum
epithelial buds arise of the lateral superior forniceal conj. and develops what? lacrimal gland
what forms the secretory part of the lacrimal gland? the mesenchymal condensation around the epithelial buds
what does the nasolacrimal drainage system develop from? a cord of surface ectodermal cells
a cord of surface ectodermal cells becomes canalized to give rise to what structures of the nasolacrimal drainage system? nasolacrimal canaliculi, nasolacrimal sac, and lasolacrimal duct
EOMs are derived from? mesenchyme
adipose tissue and connective tissue in the orbit is from? neural crest cells
bones of the orbit are formed from what? mesenchyme surrounding the optic vesicle
in early embryonic dev, the angle b/w the orbit is 180 degress and gradually reduces to what? 90 degrees
Created by: babytigger131