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marveen craig, 2nd edition esentials of sonography& patient care

gray scale display mode in which echo intensity is recorded as shades of gray or brightness
anechoic well defined echogenic walls without internal echoes, echo-free(black) appearance on a sonographic image.
hyperechoic this reflects sound with a bright intensity. term used to described echo-producing structure that are brighter than normal or brighter compared to adjacent structures
enhancement or increased through transmission sound that travels through a fluid-filled substance and is not attenuated (diminished)
fluid-level interface between two fluids with different acoustic characteristics. this level will change with patient position
echogenic capable of producing an echo
heterogeneous refers to an uneven echo pattern or reflections of varying echodensities, not uniform in texture or composition
homogeneoeus completely uniform in texture or composition
hypoechoic term used to describe low-level echoes that are not as bright as normal echoes within a structure or less bright then adjacent structures
infiltrating usually refers to a diffuse disease process or metastatic disease
irregular borders borders are not well defined, ill defined, or not present
isoechoic term used to describe structures with the same relative echo density, very close to the normal parenchyma echogenicity pattern
loculated mass well-defined borders with internal echoes; the septa may be thin (likely benign) or thick(malignant)
acoustic impedance density of tissue times the speed of sound in tissues
amplitude strength of the wave measured in decibels
attenuation progressive weakening of the sound beam as it travels through body tissue, cause by scatter, absorption, and reflection
crystal material within the transducer that converts electrical impulses into sound waves and vice versa
cycle per-second frequency at which the crystal vibrates
decibel a unit used to express the ratio of two amounts of acoustical signal power equal to 10 times the commom logarithm of ratio
focal zone depth of the sound beam where resolution is highest
frequency number of times the wave is repeated per second as measured in hertz; diagnostic applications of ultrasound use frequencies of 1-10 MHz
hertz standard unit of frequency; equal to 1 cycle per second
interface occurs whenever two tissues of different acoustic impedance are in contact
megahertz(MHz) 1,000,000 Hz
piezoelectric effect effect caused by crystals changing shape when in an electrical field or when mechanically stressed, so that an electrical impulse can generate a sound wave or vice versa
power quantity of energy generated by the transducer (expressed in watts)
pulse repetition rate the number of times per second that a transmit-receive cycle occurs (use scale button to change)
resolution ability to distinguish between two adjacent structures
specular reflector reflection from a smooth surface at right angles to the sound beam
transducer a device capable of converting energy from one form to another;in sonography, from electrical energy to mechanical energy * electrical energy goes into area of interst
ultrasound sound waves beyond the audible range;used to evaluate soft-tissue anatomic structures. *audible=20-20,000 hertz *ultrasound=above 20,000 hertz *subsonic=below 20 hertz
velocity speed of the wave, depending on tissue density
wavelength distance a wave travels in a single cycle
acoustic power varies the amount of energy the transducer transmits to the patient
cineloop system memory stores a limited number of images as a sequence to be replayed
electronic focusing each crystal elements within a group is pulsed separately to focus the beam at a particular area of interest
frame rate rate at which the image is refreshed in a real-time system display; dependent on frequency and depth
gain measure of the strength of the ultrasound signal throughout the image
real-time type of imaging in which the image is created so many times per second that a cinematic view of the tissue is obtained
time gain compensation(TGC) individual pod controls that compensate for attenuation of the sound beam as it passes through tissue
Created by: lgibbs