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OA Quiz 1

Quiz 1

QuestionAnswer
what are the 3 regions of conjunctiva? 1. palpebral conj 2. forniceal conj 3. bulbar conj
what are the 2 layers of the palpebral conj? nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium and stratified columnar epithelium
what is special about the mucantaneous junction? it is the source of stem cells for the epithelium of the palpebral conj.
what does the stratified columnar epithelium contain? goblet cells
why is the medial fornices not present? b/c of the caruncle and the semilunaris
what are the lacrimal accessory glands? glands of Krause and Wolfring
what is the bulbar conj. connected to at the limbus? corneal epithelium
what is the apical surface of conj covered with? microvilli and microplicae
where are the goblet cells in the palpebral most numerous? infernasal conj.
what does the superficial part of the conj submucosa contain a large number of? lymphocytes
what does the deeper part of the conj submucosa contain? denser fibrous connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, smooth muscle and accessory lacrimal glands
what does the anterior conj. arteries give rise to? superficial pericorneal conj. plexus and deep pericorneal episcleral plexus
where does the lymphs of the lateral conj. drain into? of the medial conj? preauricular lymph nodes and submandibular lymph nodes
how is the external sclera sulcus formed? by the greater curvature of the cornea compared to the rest of the eyeball
what is the central thickness of the cornea? the periphery? 0.52mm and 0.70mm
what are the 5 layers of the cornea? 1. epithelium 2. bowman's layer 3. stroma 4. Descemet's membrane 5. endothelium
what are the layers to the epithelium? apical layer, wing layer, basal cell layer, and basement membrane
what is the corneal epithelium made of? statrified, nonkerotinized, nonsecretory squamous epithelium
what are present in the peripheral corneal and not in the central cornea? melanocytes and immunocompetent dendritic cells
what are the characteristics of apical cells of the corneal epithelium? 1. secretes glycocalys 2. contains microplicae and microvilli to increase surface area 3. cells are joint bia zonula occludens 4. semipermeable membrane 5. presence of desmosomes
what are the characteristics of the wing layer of corneal epithelium? 1. communicate via gap junctions 2. attach laterally via desmosomes 3. anterior is convex and posterior is concave
what are the characteristics of the basal cell layer of the corneal epithelium? 1. composed of columnar shaped cells 2. attach to basement membrane via hemidesmosomes 3. attach to lateral cells via desmosomes 4. communicate via gap junctions 5. Palisades of Vogt
what are the characteristics of bowman's layer? 1. acellular 2. pores present for the passage of corneal nerve axons 3. tapers at the periphery, so does not have conj or sclera counterpart 4. produced pre-natally 5. cannot be regenerated
what are the characteristics of the stroma of the cornea? 1. composed of lamellar arrangement of collagen fibrils 2. proteoglycans called corneal ground substance separates the individual collagen fibers 3. lamellae span the entire cornea 4. metabolic pumps counterbalance the leakage of fluids
what are the characteristics of Descemet's membrane? 1. increases thickness in adulthood 2. can regenerate 3. Schwalbe's line 4. Hassall-Henle Bodies
what is Schwalbe's line? where can it be found? the termination of descement's membrane at the corneal margin
what are hassall-henle bodies? where is it considered abnormal? excrescences of descement's membrane into the anterior chamber. if this is found in the central cornea, it is abnormal --> called cornea guttata
what are the charactersitics of the corneal endothelium? 1. leaky barrier to allow things to flow into the stroma 2. maintas stromal hydration 3. cell density is 2500-3000 cells/mm^2 4. cells are connected by macula occludens
what does the internal sclera sulcus contain? trabecular meshwork and canal of schlemm
what is the anterior boundary of the corneoscleral limbus? defined by a plane connecting the termination of bowman's layer and th e termination of descemet's membrane
what is the posterior boundary of the corneoscleral limbus? defined by a plane perpendicular to the surface of the globe and passing through the posterior edge of the sclera spur
where are EOMs attached to? sclera
where is the sclera the thickest? thinnest? thickest at the optic nerve; thinnest just posterior to the insertions of the rectus muscles
what does the sclera foramina contain? an aperature for the fibers of the optic nerve to exit
what is the lamina cribrosa? where is it found? a sieve like structure in the sclera that allows the passage of axons of the retinal ganglion cells as well as arteries and veins of the retina
where do nerve fibers get myelinated in the sclera? lamina cribrosa
what are the sclera aperatures and what goes through them? 1. anterior sclera aperture- anterior ciliary arteries 2. middle sclera aperture- vortex veins 3. posterior sclera aperture- long and short ciliary nerves and vessels
what are the layers of the sclera? episclera, sclera stroma, lamina fusca
what are the characteristics of the episclera? 1. vascularized 2. continuous with tenon's capsule 3. anteriorly rich in blood supply from anterior ciliary arteries 4. posterior blood supply from short posterior ciliary arteries
what are the characteristics of the sclera stroma? 1. collagen bundles are thicker than cornea 2. collagen bundles contribute to the resiliency and strength
what is the opaqueness of the sclera due to? different diameters of the collagen fibrils, interlacing bundles, and decreased water-binding substances
what are the characteristics of the lamina fusca? 1. dark brown from melanocytes 2. presence of grooves for passage of long posterior ciliary vessels and nerves
what originates at the sclera spur? longitudinal ciliary msucle fibers
what is the sclera spur? projections of sclera tissue
what is the annulus of zinn? tendinous ring that gives rise to 4 recti muscles
what is the oculomotor foramen? refers to the area enclosed by the tendinous ring
what is the largest EOM? MR
what contributes to the suspensory liagment of lockwood? fascial expansions of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique
what is the longest and thinnest EOM? superior oblique
what are the 3 principles of ANS? 1. 2 neurons b/w the CNS and the effecter organ 2. innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands 3. either excitatory or inhibitory
what is tachycardia? heart rate increase
what is bradychardia? heart rate decrease
what are the lengths of pre and post ganglionic fibers for the sympathetic division? pre is short; post is long
what are the lengths of pre and post ganglionic fibers for the parasympathetic divison? pre is long; post is short
what is cholinergic? fibers that release acetylcholine
what is adrenergic? fibers that release norepinephrine
what NT do smypathetic fibers release? pre- acetylcholine; post-norepinphrine
what NT do parasympathetic fibers release? norepinphrine
what muscles move for facial expression? CN VII (frontalis, procerus, orbicularis culi, corrugators supercilli muscle)
what is distichiasis? accessory row of lashes arising from meibomian glands
what is trichiasis? misdirected lashes
where is the gray line? between the eyelashes and the orifices of the meibomian glands
what are the 4 muscles of the eyelid? 1. orbicularis oculi muscle 2. levator palpebral superioris 3. superior tarsal muscle (Muller's muscle) 4. inferior tarsal muscle
what are the 4 parts to the the oribuclaris oculi? orbit portion, palpebral portion, lacrimal portion and ciliary portion
what divides the lacrimal gland into the orbital and palpebral parts? the lateral horn of the levator aponeurosis
what is the purpose of the muscle of muller? help keeps lid up once the levator has lifted it
which 2 muscles has neural innervations supplied by the postganglionic sympathetic fibers that originates from the superior cervical ganglion? superior tarsal muscle and inferior tarsal muscle
what is the capsulopalpebral fascia? function is to move the lower lid in tandem with the globe; lower eyelid aponeurosis
what are the connective tissues of the eyelid? orbital septum, tarsal plate, palpebral ligaments
what are the glands of the eyelid? gland of zeiss and gland of moll
what are the 6 layers of the eyelid? 1. skin 2. subcutaneous tissue 3. oritcularis oculi 4. orbital septums and tarsal plate 5. smooth muscle 6. palpebral conj
what are the 2 layers of acini composed of? a basal myoepithelial cell layer and an inner layer of secretory columnar cells
what are the 3 layers of the tear film? oily layer, aqueous layer, mucous layer
Created by: babytigger131