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Unit 1, Section 2

Anatomical Structure: supply, support, function

three types of muscle skeletal, smooth, cardiac
skeletal muscle voluntary: striated, has 2 or more attachments
origin attachment that moves least
insertion attachment which moves the most
origins location proximal to distal
insertions location distal to laterally
belly fleshy part of muscle
tendons fibrous tissue cords that attachs ends of muscle to bones, cartilage, or ligaments
thin strong sheet of fibrous tissue aponeurosis
raphe an interdigitation of tendinous ends of flat muscle fibers
pennate muscles muscles whose fibers run obliquely to line of push or pull-resembles a feather
unipennate muscles tendon lies along one side of muscle and muscle fibers pass obliquly to it
example of unipennate muscle extensor digitorum longus
bipennate muscle tendon lies in center of the muscle-muscle fibers pass to it from two sides
example of bipennate muscle rectus femoris
multipennate muscle may be arranged as a series of bipennate muscles lying along side one another or may have tendon lying within its center and converging muscle fibers passing to it from all sides
examples of multipennate muscles acromial fibers of deltoid and tibialis anterior
2 types of fascia superficial and deep
fascia lies between skin and underlying muscles and bones
superficial fascia subcutaneous tissue, a mixture of loose tissues that unite dermis of skin to underlying deep fascia
examples of superficial fascia scalp, back of neck, palms, and soles
deep fascia membranous layer of connective tissue that invests muscles and other deep structures
deep fascia in neck forms well-defined layers that may play an important role in determining path taken by pathogenic organisms during the spread of infection
deep fascia in thorax and abdomen a thin film of tissue covering muscles and aponeuroses
deep fascia in limbs forms sheath around muscles and other structures, holding them in place
retinacula deep fascia in joint regions that is considerably thick
retinacula function to hold underlying tendsons in position or to serve as pulleys around which tendons may move
motor unit consists of a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it supplies or innervates
describe motoneural innervation of large muscle or muscle group where fine control is unnecessry, but gross motor control is important, single motor neuron may supply as many as 200+ muscle fibers
describe motoneural innervation in small muscle or group where gross motor control is unnecessary, but fine motor control is required, one nerve fiber supplies only a few muscle fibers.
prime mover chief muscle or member of a chief group of muscles responsible for a particular movement
prime mover in knee joint extension quadriceps femoris
antagonist opposes the action of prime mover
what muscle opposes quadriceps femoris in knee joint extension biceps femoris
what must happen before a prime mover can contract reciprocal "relaxation" of antagonist muscle must occur
nervous reflex inhibition facilitates reciprocal "relaxation" of antagonist so prime mover can contract
fixator stabilizes origin of prime mover and ensures efficient action of prime mover
synergist contracts and stabilizes "intermediate" joints to prevent unwanted movements
example of synergist forearm flexor and extensor constractions stabilize wrist joint, permits long flexor and extensors of fingers to work efficiently
Created by: otstudent2994