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AnatomyExam 1


serratus posterior superior - attachments lower part of ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7-T3......ribs 2-4
serratus posterior superior - innervation intercostal nerves T2-T5 (anterior rami)
serratus posterior superior/inferior - function elevates upper ribs during forced inspiration...stabilizes lower ribs against diaphragm contraction
serratus posterior inferior - attachments spinous processes of T11-L2...lower 3-4 ribs
serratus posterior inferior - innervation last 3-4 intercostal nerves (anterior rami)
what are the intermediate extrinsic back muscles? serratus posterior superior/inferior
what are the superficial intrinsic back muscles? splenius capitis/cervicis (spinotransversales muscles)
splenius capitis - attachments nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7-T3/4, supraspinous ligament...mastoid process and occipital bone
splenius cervicis - attachments spinous processes of T3-T6.....transverse processes of C1-C3/4
what is the nerve supply for intrinsic back muscles? posterior rami of spinal nerves
splenius capitis/cervicis - function head and neck extension; rotation with unilateral contraction
erector spinae - function vertebral column and head extension; lateral flexion of vertebral column
What are the intermediate intrinsic muscles? erector spinae
How are the erector spinae muscles grouped? columns - iliocostalis (lateral), longissimus (intermediate), spinalis (medial)....regionally according to superior attachments (capitis, cervicis, thoracis, lumborum)
erector spinae - attachments posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacro-iliac ligaments, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes and supraspinous ligament...named region (capitis, cervicis, thoracis, lumborum)
what are the deep intrinsic muscles? transversospinal - semispinalis (superficial), multifidus (intermediate), rotatores (deep)
Semispinalis - attachments transverse processes of C4-T10 vertebra...named region
multifidus - attachments sacrum,ilium, erector spinae aponeurosis, transverse processes(except C1-C3)...spinous processes (except C2)
how long are: semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores semispinalis:4-6 segements; multifidus: 2-4 segements; rotatores brevis: 1 segment; rotatores longus: 2 segements
rotatores - attachments transverse processes....lamina near the transverse process junction
semispinalis - function head, thoracic, cervical extension; contralateral rotation
multifidus - function contralateral rotation, stabilization
rotatores - function proprioception, stabilization, rotation
what are the segmental (minor) intrinsic back muscles? interspinales, intertransversii, levatores costorum
segmental (minor) intrinsic back muscles - innervation posterior (dorsal) rami....except intertransversarii which are innervated by anterior (ventral) rami of spinal nerves
interspinales - attachments superior spinous processes of cervical and lumbar vertebra...inferior spinous processes of vertebrae superior to vertebra of origin
intertransversarii - attachments transverse process of cervical and lumbar vertebrae....transverse processes of adjacent vertebra
levatores costarum - attachments tips of transverse processes of C7-T11...pass inferiorlaterally and insert on rib between its tubercle and angle
segmental (minor) intrinsic back muscles - function minor role in spinal stability
what are the boundaries of the suboccipital triangle? rectus capitis posterior major; obliquus capitis superior; obliquus capitis inferior; floor: posterior atlanto-occiptal membrane and posterior arch of C1; roof: semispinalis capitis
what does the suboccipital trangle contain? vertebral artery and suboccipital nerve (C1)
rectus capitis posterior major - attachments spinous process of the C2...lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone
obliquus capitis inferior - attachments spinous process of the C2...transverse process of C1
obliquus capitis superior - attachments transverse process of C1...occipital bone between superior and inferior nuchal lines
simple columnar cells - location, function small intestine, colon, stomach lining, gastric glands, gallbladder....absorption and secretion
simple cuboidal - location, function small ducts of exocrine glands, surface of ovary, kidney tubules, thyroid follicles....absorption, conduit barrier, secretion
type I collagen - location.....function connective tissue of skin, bone, tendon, ligaments, dentin, sclera, fascia and organ capsules......provides resistance to force, tension, and stretch
type II collagen - location...function cartilage (hyaline and elastic), notochord, and interveterbral disc...provides resistance to intermittent pressure
type III collagen - location...function loose conective tissue, organs, smooth muscle, endoneurium, blood vessels, fetal skin...forms reticular firbers, arranged as loose meshwork of thin fibers, provides a supportive scaffolding for specialized cells of various organs and blood vessels
type IV collagen - location...function basal laminae of epithelia, kidney glomeruli, and lens capsule.....provides filtration barrier and support
stratified squamous cells - location, function epidermis, oral cavity and esophagus, vagina.....barrier, protection
trapezius...function adducts scapula, upward and outward scapular rotation, elevates scapula, depresses scapula
trapezius - attachment external occitpital protuberance, superior nuchal line, ligamentum nuchae, C7-T12 spinous process......spine of scapula, acromion, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
latissimus dorsi - function extends, adducts, medially rotates humerus, pulls body toward arm in climbing and chin ups
latissimus dorsi - attachments T7-T12 spinous processes, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, ribs 9-12.....floor of bicipital groove (intertubercular groove) medial to insertion of pectoralis major
levator scapulae - attachments C1-C4 transverse processes....medial border of scapula superior to scapular spine
levator scapula - function elevates scapula, extends or laterally flexes neck
levator scapula - innervation C3,4 anterior rami and dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
levator scapula - blood supply deep branch of the transverse cervical artery
rhomboid major - attachments T2-T5 spinous processes, medial border of scapula
rhomboid major and minor - function retracts (Adducts) scapula, elevates scapula, rotate the lateral aspect of the scapula inferiorly (with assistance from other muscles)
deltoid - attachment lateral 1/3 clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula......deltoid tuberosity of humerus
deltoid - innervation axillary nerve
deltoid - blood supply deltoid branch of thoracoacromial artery, posterior humeral circumflex artery
deltoid - action abducts, flexes, extends, internal and external rotation
teres major - attachment posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula.....medial lip f intertubercular groove of humerus
teres major - innervation lower subscapular nerve C5/C6/C7
teres major/minor - blood supply circumflex scapular artery
teres major - function medially rotates the humerus, adducts nad extends the humerus
what are the muscles of the rotator cuff? supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
supraspinatus - attachment supraspinous fossa...greater tubercle of humerus
supraspinatus/infraspinatus - innervation suprascapular nerve
supraspinatus/infraspinatus - blood supply suprascapular artery
supraspinatus - function initiates abduction of upper limb (first 15 degrees).....hold head of humerus in the glenoid cavity during arm elevation (flexion, abduction)
obliquus capitis superior - function lateral flexion
obliquus capitis inferior - function rotates C1 (atlas) and head
rectus capitis posterior major - function extends head
suboccipital triangle - blood supply vertebral and occipital arteries
rectus capitis posterior minor - attachments posterior tubercle of C1 (atlas).....inferior nuchal line
rectus capitis posterior minor - function extends and rotates head
rectus capitis posterior minor - innervation suboccipital nerve (C1)
rectus capitis posterior minor - blood supply vertebral and occipital artery
trapezius - innervation spinal accessory nerve (CN XI); C3/C4 for proprioception
trapezius - blood supply superficial branch of transverse cervical artery
intrinsic back muscles - blood supply posterior intercostal arteries
latissimus dorsi - innervation thoracodorsal nerve
latissimus dorsi - blood supply thoracodorsal artery (branch of subscapular)
rhomboid minor - attachments C7-T1...roof of scapular spine
rhomboid major/minor - innervation dorsal scapular nerve
rhomboid major/minor - blood supply deep branch of the transverse cervical artery
infraspinatus - attachments infraspinous process...greater tubercle of humerus
infraspinatus/teres minor - function laterally rotates humerus
teres minor - attachments superior lateral border of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus
teres minor - innervation axillary nerve
teres minor - blood supply scapular circumflex artery
subscapularis - attachments subscapular fossa....lesser tubercle of humerus
subscapularis - function medial rotation of humerus
subscapularis - innervation subscapular nerve
subscapularis - blood supply subscapular artery
biceps brachii long head, short head - attachments supraglenoid tubercle....coracoid process
which erector spinae muscles do not attach in the lumbar region? head? longissimus, spinalis...iliocostalis
Created by: lem1784



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