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what is importance of perirenal fat capsule? surronds kidney anchors to dorsal body and cushions
smooth membrane; tightly adherent to the kidney surface Renal Capsule
Explain the important differences between blood plasma and renal filtrate and relate differences to the structural membrane? The plasma that is filtered is known as "renal filtrate" and is similar to plasma, except that the circulating globular proteins are too big to be filtered
portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts medullary
portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures cortex
describe the mechanisms that contribute to renal auto regulation? Myogenic (muscle contract when stretched)and tubuloglomerular feedback (vasodilate affrnt from change sensed in jux app mediated by macula densa ), they are initiated by & w/in the kidney & allows control of its own (auto) rate of blood flow & GFR
Trace the anatomical pathway of a molecule of creatinine (metabolic waste) from the glomerular capsule to the urethra. Note each microscopic and/or gross structure it passes through in its travels. Name the subdivisions of the renal tubule G cap---> PCT--> Henle--->DCT--> collecting tubule---> papillary duct--> minor calyx major calyx--> renal pelvis--> ureter -->bladder -->urethra
Describe the physiological role & mechanisms of extrinsic regulation of GFR (extrinsic) nueral control(extrinsic) hormonal controls (renin-angiotensin system)
Describe the physiological role & mechanisms of extrinsic regulation of GFR (neural regulation) NE released by sympathetic NS, E is released by adrenal medulla, afferent arterioles constrict and filteration is inhibited stimulates macula densa cells trips renin angiotensin mechanism
Describe the physiological role & mechanisms of extrinsic regulation of GFR (Hormonal regulation) SNS indirectly stim the renin angiotensin mechanisms by stim"g granular cells to release Renin, acts enzymc on ang'tsn = ang'tsn I w/ ACE converts to ang'tsn II acts 5 ways on:raises blood volume reabsorbtn & decr surface area reduces GFR
extrinsic regulation of GFR by renin-angiotension mechanisms explain the ways it alters GFR 5 ways: 1) vasocontriction raises MAP 2)Na reabsorbtion 3) ADH released & thirst incr = blood volume increased 4) decr pertubul capillary hydrostatic press = fluid back to PCT 5) mesanglial cells decr surface area & GFR
describe what is involved in active and passive tubular reabsorption? Passive tubular reabsorption is the passive reabsorption of negatively charged ions that travel along an electrical gradient created by the active reabsorption of Na+.
explain how peritubular capillaries are adapted for recieving reabsorbed substances Arise from efferent arteriole of the glomerulus Normal, low pressure capillaries adapted for absorption instead of filtration Cling close to the renal tubule to reabsorb (reclaim) some substances from collecting tubes,W/ aquaporins,
explain the process and purpose of tubular secretion most active in PCT some in collect duc & DCT. REABSORB IN REVERSE; disposes of unwanted solutes (not already in filtrate)urea uric acid, eliminates solutes that were reabsorbed & rids body of exs K (PCT mainly)& controls PH
How does aldesterone modify chemical composition of urine? acts to conserve Na, target principle cells (coll duc)& DCT cells prods open/syn luminal Na & k chnnl= No Na leaves urine 2) facilitates H2O reabsorb as Na reclm H2O follows. As Na enters K moves into lumen the hi aldosterone=hi Na reclaimed= more K lost
Explain why filtrate becomes hypotonic as it flows through the ascending loop & interstitial fluid of deep medulla is hyper tonic counter multiplr(henle loop)& exchanger (vasa recta)b/c in the asc'g limb permeable to solute not H2O filtrate is diluted while traveling passive @renal pelvis,b/c H2O freely absorbed @ descending filtrate concentration increases & H2O reabsorbed
How does urinary bladder anatomy support its storage function? walls 3layer: outr fibrous adventitia, mid detrusor, inner mucosa (transitional epithelium) (((r highly folded called RUGAE allows distention of w/out lg increase in internal pressure.))))
Define micturition and describe the storage and micurition reflexes. emptying bladder 1) P adds up = bladder distension & stretches receptors trigger spinal reflex = stored urine. 2)Voluntary initiation of void reflex activates micuration ctr in pons, signals parasymp mtr n to contract detrusor muscl & relax of sphincters.
describe the changes that occur in kidney and bladder anatomy during old age? the kidney atrophy, become incontinent, muscle control less stress incontinence, nephron decrease in sz, narrowing of arterioles from altherosclosis reduces GFR, bladder 1/2 capacity, nocturia night urination effects 2/3 of elderly
what is cystitis? why do mostly women get it? Bladder inflamed mucosa lining of swollen bleeding occurs. bacterial invasion of & chemical/mechanical irritation from urinary tract infection that 40% female get due to fecal matter e.coli.b/c wiping back to front urethra short orifice close to anus.
Lowest blood concertation of nitrogenous waste occurs in the? Renal vein
The glomerular capillaries differ from other capillary networks in the body b/c they are derived from and drain into arterioles
Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first w/ functioning of the collecting ducts
Which is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule cells? Na, K,& amino acids:(sodium, all nutrients, cations, anions & H2O urea, lipid sol solutes & sm proteins:all glucose, lactic & amino acids, 90% HCO3,65%Na &H2O,60% Cl, 55%K bulk of electrolytes, almost all uric acid &later it is secreted back into filtrate
Glucose is not normally found in b/c it reabsorbed by the tubule cells
Filteration at the glomerulus is inversely related to capsular hydrostatic pressure
Tubular reabsorption of glucose and many other substances is a Tm limited active transport process
If freshly voided urine sample contains excessive amounts of urochome it has a dark yellow color
conditions such as diabetes mellitus, starvation, and low carbohydrate diet are close linked to Ketonuria
Which of the following is/are true about ADH? It is secreted in response to an increase in extracellular fluid osmality
most common congenital abnormalties are horse shoe kidney, polycystic kidney & hypospadias
deficiency in aquaporins or ADH receptors, excessive loss of dilute urine causes dehydration Diabetes insipidus
herniation of urinary bladder into vagina; common result of tearing of pelvic floor muscles during child birth ctstocele
examination of bladder mucosal surface; tube threaded into bladder through urethra cystoscopy
substance (heavy metal organic solvent or bacterial toxin) that is toxic to kidney nephrotoxin
obstruction of interlobar artery; b/c interlobar artery does not anastomose the obstruction leads to ischemic necrosis of the portions of the kidney they supply causes area dead (necrotic)renal tissue renal infarct
analysis of urine; aids in diagnosing health or disease urinalysis
using urinalysis the most significant indicators of disease in urine are? proteins (proteinuria/ albuminuria), glucose (glucosuria), ketone bodies/acetone (ketonuria), erythrocytes (hematuria)hemoglobin (hemoglbinuria), and pus leukocytes(pyruia), bile pigments (bilirubinuria)
excessive (glucose)sugar in diet non pathological or pathologial diabetes mellitus glucosuria
excessive proteins in urine due to pathological; renal failure, hypertension, renal disease, glomerulnephronitis, Nonpathological ;high protein diet, excess physical exercise, pregnancy proteinuria albumineria
excessive ketone bodies in urine pathological; diabetes mellitus, nonpathological;starvation, low carb diet, weight loss diet ketonuria
excessive hemoglobin in urine pathological; hemolytic anemia, transfustion reaction nonpathological; sever burn Hemoglobinuria
excesive bile piments in blood pathological; hepatitus cirrhosis liver disease, obstruction in bile duct from liver or gall bladder due to gall stones bilirubinuria
excessive erythrocytes in urine due to pathological kidney stones, infected neoplasm, bleeding urinary tract nonpathological; trauma to hematuria
excessive leukocytes from pathological infections, urinay tract infections pus in urine pyruia
Created by: larue10510