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SoutheastPathologies

Southeastern Institute - Pathologies

QuestionAnswer
Alzheimer's Disease Progressive degenerative disease of the brain leading to deterioration and dementia.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Progressive disease that begins in the central nervous system. It involves the degeneration of motor neurons and the subsequent atrophy of voluntary muscle.
Anemia symptom rather than a disease in it-self. It indicates a shortage of red blood cells or hemoglobin or both.
Aneurysm Delicate dilation or out pouching in an artery, usually part of the aorta or at the base of the brain.
Ankylosing Spondylitis Progressive arthritis of the spine.
Appendicitis Inflammation of the vermiform appendix, often due to infection, but sometimes related to physical obstruction, as well as pathogens.
Asthma Result of spasmodic constriction of bronchial smooth muscle tubes in combination with excess mucus production and mucosal edema.
Atherosclerosis Condition in which the arteries become partially or completely occluded due to atherosclerotic plaques.
Bell's Palsy Flaccid paralysis of one side of the face caused by inflammation or damage to cranial nerve VII.
Boils Local staphylococcus infections similar to acne, but they are not related to adolescence or liver dysfunction.
Bursitis Fluid-filled sack that acts as a protective cushion at points of recurring pressure, eases the movement of tendons and ligaments moving over bones, and cushions points of contact between bones.
Cancer Growth of malignant cells into tumors that invade tissues and spread throughout the body.
Cerebral Palsy Group of signs and symptoms of central nervous system damage that occurs prenatal or in early infancy.
Chorea Involuntary twitching, usually due to essential tremor, Huntington's disease, or Parkinson's disease.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Collection of signs and symptoms that indicate an ongoing immune response. The original stimulus of the response may be an identifiable pathogen, or it may simply be a dysfunction of the immune System.
Cirrhosis Normal liver cells are replaced with scar tissue.
Contractures Permanently shortened muscles or muscle groups that are surrounded by thick, contracted fascia.
COPD/Emphysema Condition in which the alveoli of the lungs become fibrous and inelastic. They merge with each other, decreasing surface area, and limiting oxygen - carbon dioxyde eexchange.
Cysts Layers of connective tissue surrounding and isolating something that shouldn't be in the body, e.g., a piece of shrapnel or a localized infection.
Crohn's Disease Idiopathic inflammatory condition, usually of the small intestine and sometimes of the large intestine. It is slowly progressive, involving isolated lengths of intestine, with normal areas remaining in between damaged tissue.
Decubitus Ulcers Ulcers caused by impaired circulation to the skin. Lack of blood supply leads to irreplaceable tissue death. Also known as bed sores.
Diabetes Mellitus Group of metabolic disorders characterized by glucose intolerance or deficiency and disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.
Diverticulosis/Diverticulitis Development of small pouches that protrude from the colon. Diverticulitis is the inflammation of these pouches when they become infected.
Dupuytren's Contracture Idiopathic shrinking and thickening of the fascia an the palm of the hand.
Edema Retention of interstitial fluid either because of electrolyte or protein imbalances or because of mechanical obstruction in the circulatory or lymphatic systems.
Embolism or Thrombus Stationary clots. emboli are clots that travel through the circulatory system. Emboli are usually composed of blood, but may also be fragments of plaque, fat globules, air bubbles, tumors, or bone chips.
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain usually brought about by a viral infection.
Fibromyalgia Condition that involves chronic muscle pain, trigger points, tender points, and non restorative sleep.
Gallstones Crystallized formations of cholesterol or bile pigments in the _____. They can be as small as grains of sand or as large as a golf ball.
Gout Inflammatory arthritis caused by deposits of sodium urate (uric acid) in and around joints, especially in the feet.
Guillain Barre Syndrome Disease of the nervous system brought about by autoimmune dysfunction, certain types of infections or vaccinations, Hodgkin's lymphoma, surgery, or exposure to some drugs.
Heart Attack Damage to the myocardium caused by a clot or plaque fragment getting lodged somewhere in a coronary artery, or atherosclerosis so complete that it deprives the cardiac muscle of oxygen.
Hematoma Deep bruise (leakage of blood) between muscle sheaths.
Hemophilia Genetic disorder in which certain clotting factors in the blood are either inactive or missing altogether.
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver, usually due to viral infection.
Hernia Hole or rip in the abdominal wall or the inguinal ring through which the small intestines may protrude. A hiatal hernia forms where the diaphragm opens to allow the esophagus to pass. when this hole becomes wider, the stomach protrudes upwardly.
Herpes Zoster Viral infection of sensory neurons from the same Virus that causes chicken pox.
HIV/AIDS Disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which attacks and disables the immune system, leaving a person vulnerable to a host of diseases that are not a threat to uninfected people.
Hives Inflammatory skin reaction to an allergen or emotional stressor.
Hodgkin's Disease Slow-growing lymphoma that typically begins in the lymph nodes of the neck, axilla, or inguinal areas, but may spread to attack internal organs.
Hypertension Technical term for high blood pressure.
Hyperthyroidism Reaction to the secretion of too much thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolism.
Impetigo Bacterial (staphylococcus or streptococcus) infection of the skin.
Interstitial Cystitis Chronic inflammation of the bladder, involving scar tissue, stiffening, decreased capacity, bleeding, and sometimes ulcers in the bladder walls.
Jaundice Symptom of liver dysfunction, involving the presence of excess bilirubin in the blood, which is then dissolved in subcutaneous fat, mucous membranes, and the sclera of the eyes.
Kidney Stones deposit of crystalline substances in-side the kidney or the ureters.
Lyme Disease Infection of several body systems, brought about by exposure to the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It is transmitted by deer ticks.
Lymphangitis Infection of lymph capillaries. If it proceeds to the nodes, it is called lymphadenitis. If it travels past the lymphatic system, it is called blood poisoning (septicemia), and it can be life threatening.
Marfan's Syndrome Genetic disorder that can affect the musculoskeletal system, the circulatory system, and the eyes.
Meningitis infection of the meninges, specifically the pia mater and the arachnoid layers.
Multiple Sclerosis Idiopathic disease that involves the destruction of myelin sheaths around both motor and sensory neurons in the CNS.
Myasthenia Gravis utoimmune disorder in which the acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscles are damaged. This limits the strength of nerve transmissions and causes the muscles to become weak.
Myositis Ossificans Bony deposit in soft tissues. It usually follows trauma that involves significant leakage of blood between fascial sheaths.
Neuritis Inflammation of a nerve. It is usually a symptom or complication of some other problem.
Osteoarthritis Joint inflammation brought about by wear and tear causing cumulative damage to articular cartilage.
Osteogenesis Imperfecti Large group of inherited conditions involves abnormally fragile bones, which may break with mini-mal trauma.
Osteoporosis Loss of bone mass and density brought about by endocrine disorders and poor metabolism of calcium.
Ovarian Cysts Benign, fluid-filled growths on the ovaries.
Paget's Disease Bone disorder in which healthy bone is rapidly reabsorbed and replaced with fibrous connective tissue.
Parkinson's Disease Degenerative disease of the substantia nigra cells in the brain. These cells produce the neurotransmitter dopamine, which helps the basal ganglia to maintain balance, posture, and coordination.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Bacterial infection of female reproductive organs. It starts at the cervix and can move up to infect the uterus, fallopian (uterine) tubes, ovaries, and entire pelvic cavity.
Peritonitis inflammation, usually due to bacterial infection, of the peritoneal lining of the abdomen.
Pneumonia infection in the lungs brought about by bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens.
Polio viral infection, first of the intestines, and then (for about 1% of exposed people) the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.
Premenstrual Syndrome group of signs and symptoms that precede a woman's menstrual period. They may be severe enough to interfere with normal activities.
Psoriasis noncontagious, non spreading chronic skin disease with occasional acute episodes.
Pyelonephritis infection of the kidney and/or renal pelvis.
Raynaud's Syndrome defined by episodes of vasospasm of the arterioles, usually in fingers and toes, but occasionally in the nose, ears, lips, and tongue.
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy causes pain following soft tissue or bone injury not to follow a nor- mal course. Instead, it continues after the healing process is complete, for no known reason.Rheumatoid Arthritis
Sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve. The source of irritation may be inside or outside the spinal canal.
Scleroderma chronic condition without a known cause. It involves general fibrosis and vascular abnormalities. It can be a mild, lifelong condition, or may be severe enough to cause death within a few months.
Seizure Disorders usually caused by neurological damage, although it may be impossible to delineate exactly what that damage is
Septic Arthritis arthritis is joint inflammation caused by infection inside the joint capsule.
Shin Splints lower leg problems involving some combination of an injury to the anterior or posterior tibialis and possible hairline fractures of the tibia. They are usually brought about by overuse or misalignment in the ankle.
Spinal Cord Injury situation in which some or all of the fibers in the spinal cord have been damaged, usually by trauma but occasionally from other problems such as tumors or bony growths in the spinal canal.
Spondylosis osteoarthritis of the spine.
Sprains injured ligaments.
Strains injured muscles.
Stroke damage to brain tissue caused by either a clot lodged to block blood flow to brain tissue or an internal hemorrhage.
Temporomandibular Joint Disorders arise when constant strain, stress, and malocclusion of the jaw lead to arthritis, inflammation, and dislocation of the temporomandibular joint.
Tenosynovitis inflammation of a tendon and/or surrounding synovial sheath. It can happen wherever tendons pass through these sheaths, but is especially common in the fore- arm, particularly in the ex- tensor muscles.
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome collection of signs and symptoms brought about by occlusion of nerve and blood supply to the arm.Thrombophlebitis or Deep Vein Thrombosis
Torticollis unilateral spasm of neck muscles. The spasm may be related to a variety of causes.
Trigeminal Neuralgia pain along the trigeminal nerve, usually in the lower face and jaw.
Tuberculosis bacterial infection that usually begins in the lungs, but may spread to bones, kidneys, lymph nodes, or elsewhere in the body. It is a highly contagious airborne disease.
Ulcerative Colitis condition in which the inner layer of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers.
Ulcers sores that, for various reasons, don't experience a normal healing process, but instead, remain open and vulnerable to infection.
Urinary Tract Infection infection of the urinary tract, usually by bacteria that live normally and harmlessly in the digestive tract.
Varicose Veins distended veins, usually in the legs, caused by valve incompetence and a backup of blood returning to the heart.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome irritation of the median nerve as it passes under the transverse carpal ligament into the wrist. It has several different causes.
Ganglion Cysts small fluid-filled connective tissue sacks that are attached to tendons, tendinous sheaths, ligaments, or periosteum.
Lupus autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack various types of connective tissue throughout the body
Bronchitis Inflammation of bronchial mucosa that causes the bronchial tubes to swell and extra mucous to be produced.
Grave's Disease Autoimmune hyperthyroidism related to excessive secretion of thyroid hormones. Includes anxiety, irritability, insomnia, rapid heartbeat, tremors, & weight loss.
Created by: cmcracken