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Praxis 2 Reading Spe

Praxis II Reading Specialist Practice

morpheme The smallest unit of meaning in our language.
Phoneme Isolation/separate Recognizing individual sounds in words. (example: What is the first sound in boy?)
Phoneme Identity or detection Hearing the same sound in different words (example: What sound is the same in boy, bake, and butter?)
Phoneme segmentation Breaking a spoken word into separate speech sounds (example: Say the sounds you hear in cup slowly)
Phoneme addition The ability to create a new word by adding a phoneme. (example: If I add the sound /s/ to the end of the word tree, what word do I have?)
Grapheme The symbol or symbols (letters) representing the phoneme.
Vowel digraphs Two vowel letters that make a single sound (examples: ea as in meal; ai as in pain; oa as in boat)
Syllable A segment in a word that contains one vowel sound.
Phonemic Awareness The understanding that spoken words are made up of individual speech sounds.
Phoneme categorization (part of phoneme identity) Recognizing a word having a different sound in a group of three or four words (example: Which word doesn't belong? run, rake, toy)
Consonant Blends/Consonant clusters Two or more consonants appearing together in a word with each retaining its own sound. (examples: st, pl, br, str)
Decodable Text Controlled text that consists mostly of words that contain phonic elements that are familiar to the students as well as previously taught sight words. Provides practice for newly acquired phonics knowledge
Rime The vowel and any consonants that follow it in a syllable. (example: in the word hat . . . "at")
Phonemes Individual speech sounds; there are 44 of these in the English language. (example: cat has three /k/ /a/ /t/; cake has three /k/ /a/ /k/
Onset The part of the syllable that comes before the vowel (example: In the word hat . . ."h". In words that begin with a vowel sound, no onset is present. (example: In the word "ate" there is only a rime.)
Phoneme deletion Recognizing that a phoneme can be removed from a spoken word and that part of that word remains. (example: If I take away the sound /b/ in the word brook, what is left?
Phoneme blending Blending sounds together to form a word. (example: What is this word? /m/ /a/ /k/
Phoneme Substitution Exchanging a phoneme for one in a spoken word to create a new word. (example: The word is run. Change the /n/ to a /t/
Alphabetic Principle The knowledge that a specific letter or letter combinations represent each of the speech sounds (phonemes) in written language
Phonics The study of the relationships between letters and the sounds they represent; phonics instruction in reading is instruction that teachers sound-symbol correspondences sounds + print
Sight Words Words that are recognized immediately. These may be phonetically regular (can be decoded or sounded out) OR phonetically irregular (can't be decoded or sounded out). The most commonly used word lists are the Dolch and Frye lists.
Consonant Digraphs Two consonants together that represent one phoneme or sound that is different from the phonemes normally represented by the letters. (examples: ch, wh, th, sh, ph, gh)
Vowel Diphthongs Two vowel letters that make two sounds; ow as in cow; ou as in pout; oi as in foil; oy as in toy
Long vowel sounds Vowel sounds that make the name of the letter; such as in words make, peel, bike, hope, fuse
Short vowel sounds Vowel sounds heard in words such as cat, pet, dig, hot, sun; usually heard in words with a CVC pattern
R-controlled vowels Vowels followed by "r"; ar, er, ir, or, ur; the sound is completely different from the long or short vowel sound
Phonological Awareness An "umbrella" term that is used to refer to a child's sensitivity to any aspect of sound structure in language. (awareness of individual words in a sentence, syllables, onset-rime segments and individual phonemes.
Environmental Print Familiar examples of writing from the child's environment. (examples: cereal boxes, signs, candy wrappers)
Parts of the Optimal Learning Model Demonstration shared demonstration guided practice independent practice (I do, we do, you do scaffolded, you do)
Demonstration (optimal learning model) Teachers show how to do by initiating, modeling, explaining, thinking aloud learners- listen and observe
Shared Demonstration (optimal learning model) teacher- demo, lead, hand-holding stage, monitor for understanding learners-participate, collaborate
Guided Practice (optimal learning model) teacher-validate, support, scaffold, feedback learner-practice, application
Independent Practice (optimal learning model) teacher-offers limited assistance learners-do task successfully with minimal assistance
Six syllable patterns CV CVC CVCe CVVC R-controlled C-le
CV pattern open syllable-long vowel example-no
CVC pattern closed syllable-short vowel example-cat
CVVC pattern vowel pair-long vowel example-boat
CVCe pattern silent e-long vowel example-cake
R-controlled pattern vowel plus r-different sound example-bird variant vowel sounds
C-Le pattern always at the end of a word-emits a schwa sound (short u sound/ ugh) example-table
4 Activities for building fluency -read alouds -supported reading -repeated reading -performance reading
Repeated Reading (fluency activity) Build automaticity through practice activities: radio reading, mumble reading, cooperative repeated reading, repeated reading sight words, repeated reading phrases
Performance Reading (fluency activity) Reading for an audience Activity-Readers' Theatre
Supported Reading (fluency activity) support through guidance, demonstration and scaffolding Reading activities: shared, choral, paired/buddy, echo
Read Alouds (fluency activity) improves comprehension improves vocabulary increases fluency builds motivation
4 Components of Fluency -automaticity -quality -rate -comprehension
comprehension (fluency component) readers comprehend important ideas
rate (fluency component) attaching appropriate reading speed according to purpose or passage type, readers adjust speed depending on purpose and text difficulty
quality (fluency component) readers ability to use proper intonation or expression, reading with smoothness and phrasing
automaticity (fluency component) translating letters to sounds and sounds to words effortlessly and accurately
4 Fluency Tasks fluent letter recognition fluent word recognition fluent word decoding fluent reading of connected text
Fluent Reading of Connected Text (fluency task) decodable text
Fluent word decoding (fluency task) knowing the 6-syllable patterns
Fluent word recognition (fluency task) high frequency word and word patterns
Fluent letter recognition (fluency task) naming and producing letters
Fluency Definition (Cecil) can decode words in text accurately with ease, correct phrasing, appropriate intonation and at a reasonably rapid rate to facilitate comprehension
Fluency Definition (National Reading Panel) reading with speed, accuracy and proper expression
Importance of Classroom Libraries vital to independent reading programs availability of reading material greatly impacts children's literacy development books contribute strongly to reading achievement
Problems/Misconceptions regarding reading programs to "fix" schools, teachers, kids concentrating & relying on scripted programs one size fits all don't focus on students' needs and the knowledgeable teacher over reliance on teacher directed programs following program with little modification
Relationship between scientific research and professional judgment in effective reading instruction science is necessary but insufficient alone scientific knowledge and professional judgment must work together art and science must always work together research determines best practices and teaching approaches
Scientific Reading Research over reliance on some cases of questionable value we must question research
Importance of bonding with your students strongest predictor of reading achievement = quality of student-teacher relationships bonding is essential, the core of responsive, excellent teaching, can't reach their heads until we reach their hearts
Language Experience Approach 5 steps 1-provide an experience 2-talk about the experience 3-record the child's dictation 4-read text aloud pointing to words 5-extend experience
non-fluent readers read word by word have a poor bank of sight words omit punctuation lack expression lack word analysis skills
Fluent readers recognize words automatically read aloud effortlessly with expression group words quickly to gain meaning from reading appropriate reading rate automatic word analysis skills adhere to punctuation
Benefits of reading aloud increases fluency improves comprehension & vocabulary builds motivation tool to bond with students builds classroom community demonstrates good reading maximize whole class teaching exposure to good literature develops listening skills
phonological awareness awareness of: individual words in a sentence syllables individual phonemes onset-rime segments ability to detect, isolate, manipulate, blend or segment units of sound within speech flow
syllable a segment in a word that contains one vowel sound, a beat in a word, one per vowel sound
Bound morpheme only has meaning when attached to a word meaning bearing units of language like prefixes and suffixes s, ed, er, ly, pre a grammatical unit that never occurs by itself, but is always attached to some other morpheme.
Unbound morpheme example-dog words a linguistic unit that is able to stand alone as a word without another morpheme attached to it.
Things that affect Reading comprehension My Very Beautiful Teacher Can Write With a Feather Motivation Vocabulary Background Knowledge Text structure Knowledge Critical Thinking Writing Word Recognition Fluency 9rate/prosody)
Question Answer Relationships 4 parts (QAR) right there on my own think and search author and me
right There (QAR) can be found in one place in the text
on my own (QAR) make a personal connection to something you have or are experiencing
Think and Search (QAR) must piece together different parts of one or more texts
author and me (QAR) consider the author's perspective & position and your own experiences and views to formulate a response
Reciprocal Teaching 4 parts (RT) predicting clarifying questioning summarizing
predicting (RT) student anticipates what will come next in the text using prior knowledge (text/experience), encourages students to think ahead in the material, students accept or reject their hypothesis
clarifying (RT) students deal with difficulties in the text by: paying attention to unfamiliar sentence structure new or difficult concepts loss of meaning of the text students apply strategies- reread, context clues, prior knowledge, ref. manual ex-dictionary
questioning (RT) students explore text in depth through 2 levels of questioning surface-cam be answered by the text (who, what, where, when) below the surface-involves critical thinking skills (why & how)
summarizing (RT) students identify the most important facts of the story an indication of mastery of the material read
Reciprocal Teaching Steps read topic sentence, make a prediction about the material student A reads material to B A & B clarify difficult text B asks A questions about text A summarizes text that he/she read A& B read next topic sentence/predict A & B switch roles repeat
GIST Generating Interactions between Schemata and Text 1- assign sts a short passage to read 2-sts write one statement for the "gist" or main idea 3- discuss the passage and gist statements 4-sts write one sentence gist summarizing the class' main idea 5-evaluate gist statements
Stump the teacher ReQuest-Reciprocal Questioning 1- teacher identifies portion of text, students read silently 2-sts read and write questions to stump the teacher/ teacher reads and writes questions 3-students ask questions, points are recorded, teacher asks questions, record points repeat
Benefits of Read Alouds -creates background knowledge -builds vocabulary -provides a reading model -conditions the child's brain to associate reading with pleasure -builds listening vocabulary as adult pours out sounds/syllables
(SSR) Sustained Silent Reading reading for pleasure everyone reads even (the teacher) no assessments/book reports
(NRP) National Reading Panel Group members 14 people 11 university prof. (8 w/reading background/2 admin./1 phy.) 1 parent 1 principal 1 middle school lang. arts teacher No member had actually taught beginning reading
(NRP) National Reading Panel commisioned by federal government to report on effective reading instruction (part of NCLB)
(NCLB) No Child Left Behind goal, deadline and year passed passed in 2001 deadline-2014 Goal- close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and minority youth and their peers
(NCLB) No Child Left Behind 4 Provisions -stronger accountability for positive results -expanded flexibility and local control -wide ranging options for parents -an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work
Listening Comprehension -feeds speaking, reading, and writing vocabulary -feeds reading comprehension -this can be built through engaging in meaningful conversation
(ELLs) English Language Learners (sheltered classrooms) sheltered English classrooms content is taught with gestures, visual aids and hands-on experiences
(ELLs) English Language Learners 5-stage instructional process 1-prereading activities 2-oral reading and responses 3-focused word study 4- evaluating word knowledge 5-writing workshop
AYP HQ NCLB LEP AYP-annual yearly progress HQ-highly qualified NCLB-no child left behind LEP-limited English proficiency
The Fab Five (areas of reading) 1- phonemic awareness 2- phonics 3- fluency 4-vocabulary 5- comprehension
graphophonemic Refers to the sound relationship between the orthography (symbols) and phonology (sounds) of a language.
Created by: zoegirl98
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