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A&P II Reproductive

Practical Practice - Male and Female Reproductive System

Primary sex organ, site of gamete production testis in males; ovaries in females
maturation site for immature sperm epididymis
pathway for sperm from epididymus to the seminal vesicle vas deferens, ejaculatory duct
secretions of this gland will play a role in activation of sperm seminal vesicles
produces a thick mucous to neutralize the acidity of the urethra cowpers gland
portion of the urethra that travels through the urogenital diaphragm membranous
paired erectile bodies within the penis corpora cavernosa
enlarged tip of the penis glans
portion of the urethra that travels through the prostate prostatic urethra
also known as foreskin prepuce
portion of urethra that travels through the penis spongy urethra
erectile body that surrounds the urethra corpus spongiosum
which area of the fallopian tube is the usual site for fertilization to occur infundibulum
gamete has how much dna? 1/2 of normal
46 chromosomes in a healthy cell, 23 pair, gametes have? no pairs; just single "halves"
male's role is to manufacture male gametes and ... deliver them to female reproductive tract
female's role is to produce female gametes; ova or egg
sex hormones; male and female androgens in male progesterone in female
the sperm producing testes lie within the scrotum
3 male sperm delivering ducts in order efferent ductules, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct
3 glands empty their secretions into the ducts during ejaculation; name them seminal vesicles, prostate, cowper
function of scrotum, other than to hold testes heat regulation
penis and scrotum lie in the area known as perineum
scrotum removes heat from which venous plexus pampiniform
function of dartos regulate skin of scrotum; contracts when cold, reducing surface area and heat loss
function of cremaster extension of oblique muscle - *shrinkage* - contracts when cold to bring testes up toward body heat, expands when warm to get testes away from body heat
blood supply testicular artery
blood drain testicular vein
role of fsh in testes sperm development
role of lh in testes testosterone
where does the dartos muscle come from; continuation of scarta's fascia
where does the cremaster muscle come from internal obdominal oblique
seminiferous tubules produce... sperm
source of testosterone leydig's cells
chryptochordism undecended teste
common ejaculatory duct joins with .... at the ... urethra/prostate
which duct cut at vasectomy vans deferens
smooth muscle of vans deferens affected by which hormone oxytocin
where sperm mature and become "swimmers" epididymus
acidic environment duct urethra
most of the seminal fluid is produced where seminal vesicles
which 2 accessory glands are highly aklalotic seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands
prostate gland produces how much seminal fluid 30%
65 to 80 days for sperm to be produced; how many to mature 20
function of seminal fluid lubrication, transportation, nutrients for sperm to survive
reduce viscosity; reverse peristalsis prostaglandins
fibrin clotting factor; causes "clump" vesiculase
enhance swimming ability enzymes
antibiotic factor seminal plasmin
shaft ends at the glans
foreskin prepuce
erectile tissues (4) corpus spongiosum, corpus cavernosum, tunica albuginea, median septum
blood; erection corpus spongiosum
maintains urethral opening corpus cavernosum
first 22 pair; autosome 23rd pair = sex chromosome
physical makeup is also called genotype (can vs. bottle)
physical expression is also called phenotype (pepsi vs. coke)
fsh -> cells certoli; sperm production
lh -> cells leydig; testosterone production
feedback mechanism -> hormone inhibin - selectively suppresses fsh without stopping lh or testosterone
directly stimulate the testes gonadotropins
normal chromosomal # term diploid
1/2 chromosomal # term haploid
crossing over concept instead of taking all traits from mom or all traits from dad; pull a little from both
prophase i chromes line up to form tetrad; one from dad, one from mom. Engage in crossing over; creates new genes of mixed proportion
metaphase i chromosomes line up at equator of cell
anaphase i separate at this stage
telophase i cytokinesis; now have two cells, full chromes, part of each parent.
end result of mitosis 1 cell becomes 2; exact duplicates of each other
end result of meiosis 1 cells becomes 2; not exact duplicates but dual trait sharing
all cells undergo mitosis except... gametes
process of meiosis in male spermatogenesis
spermatogonia/stem cells associated with which cell type certoli
3 parts of spermatozoon head, middle, tail
released into epididymus; only leave @ ejactulation sperm
prophase ii nuclear envelopes disintegrate; still have full chromes from telo i
metaphase ii chromes align on equator
anaphase ii centromeres divide; now single strands of chromes
telophase ii new nuclear envelopes form; now have four haploid cells
destined to become sperm primordial germ cells
lie along periphery of seminiferous tubule, multiply by mitosis spermatogenia
produce daughter cells a and b cells (spermatogenia)
remain, continute to multiply until death a cells
migrate closer to lumen, age to primary spermatocytes, ungergo mieosis i b cells
2 haploid cells are called secondary spermatocytes
after each secondary spermatocyte goes through mieosis ii, how many in end result 4
no further cell division; graduate transformation of each spermatid to spermatazoon spermiogenesis
homologue to penis clit
homologue to scrotum labia majora
secondary sex characteristics that develop at puberty
male secondary sex characteristics facial hair, rough course hair on torso and limbs, relatively muscular physique
can sperm develop at internal temp? no
3 mechanisms for maintaining scrotum temp clemaster muscle, dartos mucles, pampiniform plexus
carry sperm to epididymus efferent ductules
absorb 90% of fluid secreted by testes epididymus
site of sperm maturation and storage epididymus
epididymus becomes vas deferens
vas deferens and seminal vesicle meet to become ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory duct empties into urethra
produces 60% of semen seminal vesicle
produces 30% of semen prostate
secretes clear lubricator and urine neutralizer cowper glands
uterine tube, uterus, vagina are accessory ducts
female internal genitalia ovaries and duct system
connects ovary to uterus ovarian ligament
connects ovs/uterus to lateral walls suspensory ligament
lower pig ears; sheath broad ligament
portion of broad ligament that covers ovaries mesovarium
ovarian blood supply ovarian artery
outer capsule; outer cortex - follicles/inner medulla - blood supply tunica albuginea
inner medulla; stages of follicle maturation (4) primordial, primary, secondary, graafian
catchers mitt fimbrae
fallopian tube site of conception ampulla
part of fallopian tube directly attached to uterus isthmus
homeostatic imbalance of uterus ectopic pregnancy
internal os opening to cervix
support ligaments broad, lateral, uterosacral, round
homeostatic imbalance of uterine ligaments uterine prolapse
outer, tough, fibrous uterine wall perimetrium
thickest uterine wall myometrium
innermost uterine wall endometrium
outer endometrium is which layer? basil/proliferate
inner endometrium wall is which layer? functional
which endometrial wall is lost at shedding? functional
provides a passageway for the delivery of infant or menstrual flow; also female sex organ for copulation vagina
adipose at pubic symphysis mons
opening for labia and vagina vestibule
homologue for male scrotum labia majora
homologue for male ventral penis labia minora
homologue to cowpers in male greater vestibular glands
erectile tissue in female clit
homologue to corpra cavernosum clit
urethral orifice periurethral gland
homologue to prostate periurethral gland
present in both sexes; functions only in women mammary glands
modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system mammary
hormonal regularion; mammary gland (3) estradiol, pro, progesterone
glandular tissue *mammary* prl, glucocorticoids
The formation, development, and maturation of an ovum oogenesis
which egg becomes the dominant the egg that gets the extra receptors
primordial oocyte that vanishes; follicular cell recruited but not used (didn't become dominant) artresia
fsh targets primordial follicles
which phase are primordial follicles targeted by fsh follicular phase
help secrete hormones later in follicular phase thecal cells
phase in which follicles in ovary mature follicular phase
FSH secretion begins to rise in the last few days of the previous menstrual cycle (follicular phase)
LH induces androgen synthesis by thecal cells
fsh, lh and estrogen surge happen during which phase follicular
ruptured follice collapses, antrum fills with clotted blood, corpus luteum formed... luteal phase
luteal phase happens after ovulation
during luteal phase, an increase what 2 substances will happen estradiol and progesterone
lh inhibitor that temporarily stops menses estradiol
geared toward changes in endometrium uterine/menstrual cycle
3 phases of menstrual/uterine cycle; menses, proliferative phase, secretory phase
actual mitotic phase of uterine/menstrual cycle proliferative
getting it prepared for thickness; which menstrual/uterine phase proliferative
burst of progesterone; which menstrual/uterine phase secretory
rapid decrease of hormones; which menstrual/uterine phase secretory
progesterone regulated; which menstrual/uterine phase secretory
menses starts when the body has obtained enough... body fat
start of menstruation menarche
stop of menstruation menopause
didn't have menstruation by age 16 or skipped for at least 6 months; amenorrhea
Created by: 905170443



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