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A&P II Endocrine

Practical Practice - Endocrine System

Homeostatic imbalance: hypersecretion of GH in children gigantism
Homeostatic imbalance: hypersecretion of GH in adults acromegaly
Homeostatic imbalance: hyposecretion of insulin diabetes m
Homeostatic imbalance: hyposecretion of adh diabetes insipidus
What is the proper term for the type of regulation of electrolytes by the hypothalamus? humoral
Which of the following hormones will function in the MAINTENANCE of the immune system? Cortisol
What substance will be released by the hypothalamus to initiate the production of thyroid hormone? TRH (Hypothalamus > TRH > TSH > TH
What hormone will stimulate the sustentacular cells of the testes to stimulate spermatogenesis? FSH
Identify one target of growth hormone: bone, muscle, etc.
The ___ cells of the pancreas produce _____, which is the HYPERGLYCEMIC AGENT. alpha cell/glucagon
What pituitary hormone will stimulate the release of aldosterone? acth
GHIH source hypothalamus
Cortisone source zona fasiculata
PRL (Prolactin) source anterior lobe pituitary
Glucagon source alpha cells
Insulin source beta cells
aldosterone source zona glomerulosa
adh source hypothalamus
lh source anterior lobe pituitary
calcitonin source thyroid
pth source parathyroid
2 releases of posterior pituitary oxytocin and adh
which hormone is parafollicular? calcatonin
acth is released in response to what? crh
thyroid gland releases two primary hormones: thyroid and calcitonin
increases metabolic rate and body heat production, maintaining blood pressure, tissue growth and development th
release in response to increased calcium levels in blood calcitonin
antagonist of pth calcitonin
the 7 hormones of the anterior pituitary are known as "tropic"
all hormone release starts at the... hypothalamus
2 gonadotropins released in response to GnRH fsh/lh
Ovaries: fsh promotes ... egg development
Testes: fsh promotes... sperm production
Ovaries: lh promotes... ovulation
Testes: fsh promotes ... sex hormones, androgens, (testosterone!!)
Prl is inhibited by pih from hypothalamus
stimulates mammary gland development and during pregnancy it stimulates milk development. prolactin
gh is also known as somatotropin
gh is mediated by which two hormones? ghrh / ghih
gh indirect liver
gh direct not well understood
msh inhibitor dopamine (pih)
supraoptic nuclei releases... adh
paraventricular nuclei releases oxytocin
anterior lobe of pituitary is regulated by... "glandular"
posterior lobe of pituitary is regulated by... "neural"
adipose cells release... leptin
is located in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone pituitary
secretes 9 peptide hormones pituitary
hypothalamus connected to pituitary via infundibulum
posterior lobe is connected to hypothalamus via ... neurons (will only store neurons)
anterior lobe is connected to hypothalamus via... capillary beds
a portal system begins and ends with... veins
high concentrations of adh result in vasoconstriction
has incomplete blood-brain barrier hypothalamus
do both lobes use 2nd messenger systems? yes
function of oxytocin stimulate uterine contraction
clusters of neurons in hypothalamus supraoptic nuclei
adh in brain acts as neurotransmitter
function of thyroid increases cellular metabolism
adenohypophysis - anterior lobe
hyposecretion of gh pituitary dwarfism
location of hypothalamus diencephalon
hypothalamus is connected to limbic system and pituitary gland
hypothalamus regulates 3 processes: homeostasis, involuntary organs, hormones
3 ways to penetrate incomplete blood-brain barrier neurally, hormonally, humorally
of the 3 ways to penetrate incomplete blood-brain barrier, which method has a DIRECT control? Neural
main visceral control center is a description for which area? hypothalamus
colloid - protein rich or deficient? rich
looks at body hormones hormonal
looks at electrolytes, h20, etc humoral
direct electrical connection to adrenal medulla neural
has protein rich jelly in its follicles thyroid
cells that secrete calcitonin parafollicular
need to have .... in colloid to create t3/t4 iodine
Hyposecretion of t3/t4 hypothyroidism
long term hypothyroidism myxodemia
congenital hypothyroidism cretinism
toxic goiter, hypersecretion of t3/t4 Grave's disease
increased levels of ca+ and phosphates, kidney stones hyperparathyroidism
lipid based steroids corticosteroids
why are corticosteroids important? lipids can pass through cell membrane - not everything can go through incomplete blood-brain barrier
associated with "buffalo hump", "moon face" and increased glucocortocoid cushing's disease
hyposecretion of both gluco and mineral corticoids; hypoglaucemia/hypotension, bronzing of skin... addison's disease
prime source for progesterone and estrogen corpus luteum
structure associated with lh corpus luteum
paired atop each kidney adrenal glands
produces corticosteroids (over 12 dozen) adrenal cortex
layer of adrenal cortex associated with mineralcorticoids zona glomerulosa
layer of adrenal cortex associated with glucocorticoids zona fasciculata
later of adrenal cortex associated with gonadotropins zona reticularis
function of insulin lowers blood sugar
function of glucagon raises blood sugar
3p's of diabetes polyuria, polydypsia, polyphagia
blood ph decreases resulting in which diabetes complication ketoacidosis
hyperinsulin = hypoglaucemia
strictly neurally connected adrenal medulla
catecholamines epi-norepi
2 hormones associated with pineal gland synthesis of melatonin from seratonin
gland associated with sleep patterns pineal
located partly behind the stomach in the abdomen, its a mixed gland of both endocrine and exocrine cells pancreas
acinar cells pancreatic juice
epo production takes place where kidney
heart is associated with which hormone anp
inhibits aldosterone anp
t-cell maturation takes place where thymus
skin produces cholcalciferol, an inactive form of which vitamin d3
direct gene activators steroidal hormones
why is it important that steroidal hormones are direct gene activators? can go directly into cell, to nucleus, bind to receptor, trigger messenger rna to make whatever we want
which hormones are amino acid based? peptide
which hormones are NOT direct gene activators? monoamines
what do non direct gene activators need? 2nd messenger system
hormones travel throughout the entire body; why then do they only activate certain cells? target based receptors (microbio - markers)
3 regulating factors of target cell specificity blood levels of hormone (least), # of receptors, strength of bond between hormone and receptor
Created by: 905170443



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