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A&P II Digestive

Practical Practice - Digestive System

Identify the valve that controls movement of material between the small and large intestines. Ileocecal valve
Identify the ligament on the liver that is the fetal remnant. Round ligament
Identify the functional unit of the liver. Lobule
Which cells in the pancreas have an endocrine function? Islets of Langerhans
The lymphatic capillaries in teh villi are the >>>>> and they will absorb >>>>? Lacteals/Fat
Which salivary gland only has serous cells and may be infected with the mumps myxovirus? Parotid
Identify the initial portion of the large intestine. Cecum
What is the proper term for folds of mucosa in the small intestine that will increase absorption by spiraling the chyme? Plica circularis
Identify the covering of the root of a tooth. Cementum
What is the proper term for the folds of the stomach when the mucosa is relaxed? Rugea
Carb digester in the saliva. Amylase
Produced by the G cells (Enteroendocrine) Gastrin
Will stimulate liver and pancreatic secretion. CCK
Produced by the chief cells. Pepsinogen
Formed from the heme pigment in the liver. Bile
Inhibits gastric motility. GIP
Stimulates mainly the pancreas. Secretin
Found in liver, phagocytes Kupffer cells
Produced for the breakdown of milk. Renin
A deficiency of this enzyme will result in Pernicious Anemia. Intrinsic factor
4 walls of the ailmentary canal. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serous
Begins the starch breakdown in mouth. Salivary Amylase
Begins the fat breakdown in the stomach. Lingual Lipase
Responsible for keeping mouth/food moist, enabling deglutition, protection of stomach lining. Mucous
Enzyme that helps with bacterial growth in mouth. Lysozyme
Antigen that helps with bacterial growth ... Immunoglobin A
Potassium, Sodium, Phosphates, etc... Electrolytes
Released when fatty chyme hits duodenum. CCK
Activates pepsin and lingual lipase; liquefies food. HCL
Dietary protein associated with chief cells Pepsin
Parietal cells aid in ????? and without will cause this homeostatic imbalance: b-12 uptake pernicious anemia
In infancy, causes milk breakdown Renin
Makes Gastrin, a hormone like substance that stimulates stomach activity G cells
Responsible for protein breakdown. Pepsin
Stimulates hepatic and bile duct to secrete bicarb. (Pancreas) Secretin
Passageway for air, food, water Oropharynx
Initial portion is the cecum Large Intestine
Storage center for bile. Gallbladder
Main area of absorption. Small Intestine
Stimulated by release of CCK, will also function in detoxification of blood. Liver
Surrounded by adventitia, exhibits peristalsis, pierces the diaphragm. Esophagus
Homeostatic imbalance; pierced diaphragm from stomach - Hiatal hernia
Has both an endocrine and exocrine function Pancreas
Secretes an enzyme to begin the breakdown of starches. salivary glands
The opening from the oral cavity into the oropharynx - fauces
The ??? is the most superior portion of the stomach. Fundus
Due to the change in longitudinal muscles of the large intestine, puckers of the walls will occur. The "little pouches" are known as Haustra/Haustrum
The ??? is the section of the pharynx adjacent to the larynx. Esophagus
The ??? ligament attaches the liver to the diaphragm. falciform
The duct that drains the gallbladder is known as cystic duct
The ???? sphincter separates the stomach from the small intestine pyloric
Salivary gland infected by mumps parotid
smallest of the extrinsic salivary glands sublingual
3 extrinsic salivary glands sublingual, submandible, parotid
attached to the cecum, structure associated with lymphatic system. appendix
which colon connects to the rectum sigmoid
Its endocrine secretions include glucagon and insulin. pancreas
The walls of the ??? ???? are arranged in circular folds known as plica circularis
The ??? valve connects the small and large intestine ileocecal
One of the functions of this organ is to produce intrinsic factor for the absorption of B-12. stomach
4 "acts" of digestive system. ingestion, breakdown into nutrient mols, absorption of nutrients, excretion of "wastes"
Mechano and Chemo receptors in the controls of GI tract activity are located where? Walls of the GI tract organs
Location of the digestive center medulla
Define peritonitis infection of peritoneum
Causes of peritonitis appendicitis, perforation of bowel
Blood supply - splanchnic circulation - 4 sections: celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, hepatic portal circulation
Glue layer of the mucosa tunic lamina propria
Extra tunic layer in Alimentary Canal muscularis externa
True muscle layer of tunics muscularis externa
outer most tunic serosa
Control of muscle movement for peristalsis and segmentation is controlled by 2 areas - vagus nerve/"Gut Brain" (Enteric)
2 enteric (in-house) nerve plexi submucosal and mysenteric
submucosal nerve plexus stimulates everything above... diaphragm
nerve plexus that stimulates peristalsis and segmentation mysenteric nerve plexus
neurons in which oral structure can regenerate papillae (taste buds)
Palatine tonsils line each side of the .. oropharynx
define xerostoma decrease in salivary production
result of xerostoma halitosis
which gland only has serous cells? parotid
3 homeostatic imbalances of teeth: caries (cavity), calculus (Plaque), periodontal disease (periodontitis)
Collapsed when not involved in food propulsion: esophagus
2 homeostatic imbalances of Esophagus hiatal hernia/ Gerd
Temporary storage tank for chyme stomach
Left and right gastric veins branch into ... celiac trunk and common hepatic
mucous from neck cells - alkalotic or acidic? alkalotic
homeostatic imbalances of stomach gastritis - inflammation ulcer - acid wound
At chyme creation - pyloric sphincter is open or closed? closed
short or long reflex on gastric motility? short
4 lobes of liver right, left, caudate, quadrate
which omentum connects liver to stomach? lesser
functional unit of liver lobule
3 homeostatic imbalances of liver cirrhosis, hepatomegaly and hepatitis
cystic duct @ gall bladder forms with common hepatic duct from liver to form: common bile duct
homeostatic imbalance of gall bladder gall stones
pancreatic islets (langerhans) secrete.. (2) insulin and glucagon
Exocrine function of pancrease is to secrete what? pancreatic juice
encircled by duodenum pancreas
bile and pancreatic juice both help neutralize stomach acid in... duodenum
function of duodenum breakdown food
function of jejenum chem breakdown of fats and chyme
function of ileum b-12 and bile salt absorption
which nerve pierces diaphragm? phrenic
match: stomach plica circ large intestine rugae small intestine haustra stomach - rugae large intestine - haustra small intestine - plica circularis
parasympathetic nervous control of pancreas vagus nerve
sympathetic nervous control on pancreas inhibits parasympathetic - celiac ganglia
hormonal control of pancrease (3) cck, gastrin, secretin
body's major digestive organ, most absorption occurs here small intestine
3 areas of stomach: "receives stomach contents, bile, pancreatic juice" duodenum
3 areas of stomach: "most digestion and nutrient absorption occur here, rich blood supply" jejenum
3 ares of stomach: "absorbs b-12/bile salts" ileum
the lymphatic capillary of the small intestine is called: lacteal
duodenal bunner glands secrete bicarb mucous
most enzymes that function in the small intestine are found in what two structures? brush order and pancreatic juice
large intestine: longitudinal fibers of muscularis externa tenia coli
large intestine: pouches that allow for expansion, disappear when relaxed haustra
fatty pouches on peritoneum epiploic appendages
2 subdivisions of large intestine cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal
stimulation of defecation is caused by what? stretching of rectum
large intestine: intrinsic reflex from which nerve plexus? entirely w/i mysenteric
large intestine: extrinsic reflex from which nerve plexus? spinal reflex
valalva manuever - describe breath holding; contraction - (child birth)
which food group is MOST digestible? carb
proteins are absorbed by the small intestine
enzymes that digest proteins proteases
digest fats lipases
lingual lipase is triggered by... stomach acid
protein co-transporters sodium dependent amino acids
dipeptides and tripeptides can be absorbed, but are hydrolized in the ??? first... epithelial
proteins leave cell by facilitated diffusion
lipids are broken up by which 2 solvents? lecithin and bile
nucleic (rna/dna) enters capillary blood of ... villus
fat soluable vitamins a, d, e, k
fat soluable vitamins absorbed where micelles
water soluble vitamins b, c
water sol vitamins absorbed how? simple diffusion
electrolytes absorbed where entire length of small intestine
which two substances are not absorbed at a constant rate, but as needed? iron and calcium
extracellular protein is called transferrin
"branches" in the colon tenia coli
"leaves" in the colon epiploic appendages
Created by: 905170443
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