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Define and describe

A band overlapping thick and thin filaments
actin globular protein with myosin binding sites
myosin consists of two twisted strands with globular cross-bridges projected outward along the strands
tropomyosin and troponin two proteins associated with the surface of the actin filaments
fascia layers of dense connective tissue, surround and separate each muscle
fascicles bundles of muscle fibers inside the perimysium
perimysium divide skeletal muscle into bundles of muscle fibers
perimysium surrounds the entire muscle
endomysium surrounds each skeletal muscle fiber (cell), and ties adjacent mucle fibers together
aponeurosis broad sheet of tendon that connects different skeletal muscles
tendon bands of collagen fibers that attach skeletal muscles to bones
what are the layers of connective tissue that make up a muscle epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
axons nerve fibers
multinucleate muscle cell that contains hundreds of nuclei
sarcolemma cell membrane of a muscle fiber
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
transverse "T" tubules form pathways through the muscle fiber. Key role in coordination of the muscle fiber
myofibrils bundles of thick and thin filaments
myofilaments protein filaments consisting primarily of actin and myosin
actin molecules found in thin filaments
myosin molecules found in thick filaments
function of myofibrils responsible for muscle fiber contraction
sarcoplasmic reticulum "SR" specialized form of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
terminal cisternae expanded chambers of SR, contain high concentrations of calcium ions
when does muscle contraction begin when stored calcium ions are released from the terminal cisternae info the sarcoplasm
sacromeres repeating functional units of myofilaments, smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber
cross-bridges myosin heads of connected thick and thin filaments
nueromuscular junction the site where the motor neuron and muscle fiber meet
motor neuron nerve cell that controlls a skeletal muscle fiber
acetylecholine within synaptic terminal, "ACh", neurotransmitter, chemical released by a neuron to communicate with other cells
the release of ACh from the synaptic terminal results in changes in the sarcolemma that trigger the contraction of a muscle fiber
synaptic cleft separates the synaptic terminal from the sarcolemma
motor end plate the portion of the muscle fiber where the sarcolemma is tightly folded to contain receptors that bind Ach, and where nucei and mitochindria are abundant
acetylcholinesterase "AChE", breaks down molecules of ACh, stored in synaptic cleft and motor end plate
action potential electical impulses in the sarcolemma
how do neurons control skeletal muscles by stimulatin the production of an action potential
latent period begins at stimulation
twitch a single stimulus-contraction-relaxation sequence in a muscle fiber
contraction phase tension rises to a peak
relaxation phase muscle tension falls to resting levels as calcium levels drop, active sites are being covered, and the number of cross-bridges declines
creatine phosphate stores excess energy released by the mitochondria, is present to regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate
tetanus caused by exotoxin from Clostidium tetani, the toxin inhibits certain inhibitory neurons in the spinal chord, both antagonistic groups of muscles contract and the body becomes rigid
orgin the immovable end of a muscle
insertion the movable end of a muscle
contraction pulls the insertion towards the orgin
prime mover the muscle in a group of muscles that is doing the majority of the work
synergists helper muscles
antagonists opposing muscles
major muscles of the face epicranius, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomatigus, platysma
chewing muscles masseter, temporalis
major muscles that move the head sternocleinomastoid, splenius capitis, semispinalis
Created by: Anthony 619



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