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Medical Terms ch 2

chapter 2

anatomical reference systems body cavities, body planes, body directions and structural units
study of the structure of the body anatomy
study of the functions of the structures of the body physiology
imaginary vertical/horizontal lines used to divide the body into sections body planes
up and down plane that is a right angle to the horizon vertical
divides the body into equal left and right halves midsagittal plane
vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions sagittal plane
verticl plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior planes frontal plane
another name for frontal plane coronal plane
flat crosswire plane horizonal plane
horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions transverse plane
refers to the front, bell side of the body or organ ventral
refers to the back of the organ or body dorsal
situated in the front; front or forward part of an organ anterior
situated in the back, back part of the organ posterior
uppermost, above or toward the head superior
lowermost, below or toward the feet inferior
toward the head cephalic
toward the lower back of the body caudal
situated nearest the midline or beginning of body structure proximal
situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure distal
direction towards or nearer to the midline medial
direction towards or nearer the side and away from the midline lateral
2 major body cavities dorsal and ventral
2 portions of the dorsal cavity cranial and spinal
located along the back of the body and head and contains organs of the nervous system dorsal
located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain cranial cavity
located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord spinal cavity
located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis ventral cavity
body maintains a constant internal environment homeostasis
surrounds and protects the heart and lungs thoracic cavity
mucle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavity diaphragm
contains the major organs of digestion abdominal cavity
space by hip bones and contains organs of the reproductive and excretory system pelvic cavity
refers to the combo of the pelvic and abdominal cavity abdominopelvic
refers to the groin and entire lower area of abdomen inguinal
system tat divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax into 9 parts regions of the thorax and abdomen
upper left and right sides of the body and covered by lower ribs hypochondriac region
region located above the stomach epigastric region
located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine lumbar region
pit in the center of abdominal wall marks the point where umbilical cord was attached umbilical region
left and right regions over hip bones iliac regions
region located below the stomach hypogastric region
multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdomen cavity peritoneum
thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity or divides space or organ membrane
outer layer of peritoneum that lines the interior of abdominal wall parietal peritoneum
inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs in abdominal cavity visceral peritoneum
located behind the peritoneum retroperitoneal
inflammation of the peritoneum peritonitis
basic structural and functional units of the body cells
study of anatomy, physiology, pathology and chemistry of a cell cytology
tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment cell membrane
material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus cytoplasm
surrounds by cell membrane, has 2 functions; controls activities of cells and helps cells divide nucleus
unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves fro long period of time by cell division stem cells
another name for adult stem cells somatic cells
undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ adult stem cells
undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult stem cells embryonic stem cells
fundamental physical and functional unit of hereditary gene
study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and roles of genes in healthy and disease genetics
specialist in the field of genetics geneticist
inherited from either parent, the offspring will inherit the genetic condition dominant trait
genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell chromosomes
complete set of genetic info of an individual genome
condition that appears only in individuals who received 2 copies of a mutant gene - 1 from each parent recessive trait
any cell in the body except the gametes somatic cell
only type of cell that doesn't contain 46 chromosomes sex cell
packaged in a chromosome as two spiraling strans that twist together to form a double helix DNA
found in the nucleus of all types of cells except erythrocytes (red blood cells) DNA
change in the sequence of a DNA molecule genetic mutation
change within the cells of the body somatic cell mutation
manipulating or splicing of genes for scientific or medical purposes genetic engineering
pathologic condition caused by an absent or defective gene genetic disorder
disorder present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive system cystic fibrosis
disorder associated with characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities and physical appearances down syndrome
hereditary bleeding disorder in which a blood clotting factor is missing hemophilia
disorder passed on from parent to child, causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that appear midlife huntingtons disease
group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement muscular dystrophy
genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase phenylketonuria PKU
fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain tay-sachs
group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform specific functions tissue
4 main types of tissue epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve
study of the structure, composition and function of tissues histology
specialist in the study of the organization of tissues at all levels histologist
forms a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body epithelial tissue
specialized tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and surface layer of mucous membranes specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymp vessels, body cavities, glands and organs
support and connect organs and other body tissue connective tissue
4 types of connective tissue dense, adipose, loose, liquid
tissue that forms the join and framework of body (bone, cartilage) dense connective tissue
provides protective padding, insulation and support adipose connective tissue
tissue surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels loose connective tissue
tissue that is blood liquid connective tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses nerve tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax muscle tissue
defective development of the congenital absence of an organ or tissue aplasia
incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the # of cells hypoplasia
change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other anaplasia
abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues or organs dysplasia
enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the # of cells in the tissues hyperplasia
general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size but not in # of cells in tissues hypertrophy
group of specialized epithelial that are capable of producing secretions gland
secrete chemical substance into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of body (sweat glands) exocrine glands
glands that produce hormones, do not have ducts endocrine glands
inflammation of a gland adenitis
malignant tumor that originates in the glandular tissue adenocarcinoma
benign tumor that arises in glandular tissue adenoma
abnormal softening of a gland adenomalacia
any disease condition of the gland adenosis
abnormal hardening of a gland adenosclerosis
surgical removal of a gland adenectomy
independent part of the body that performs a specific functions organs
study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function pathology
study of the causes of diseases etiology
any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects communicable disease
situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface indirect contact transmission
spread of disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood blood borne transmission
occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by cough or sneeze airborne transmission
spread of disease by insect or animal bite vector borne transmission
specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population growth epidemiologist
ongoing presence of a disease within a population group or area endemic
sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area epidemic
outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area pandemic
produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified functional disorder
unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment iatrogenic illness
illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses infectious diseases
disease acquired in a hospital setting nosocomial infection
produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body organic disorder
abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth congenital disorder
results in an anomaly or malformation (absence of limb, extra toe) developmental disorder
congenital absence of a normal opening or failure of structure to be tubular atresia
Created by: o904halo



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