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Anatomy - Thorax

Thorax Comprehensive Exams

QuestionAnswerAdditional Information
True Ribs first 7 ribs, attached directly to sternum through own costal cartilages
Typical Ribs 3rd to 9th ribs; head -> wedge shaped w/ 2 facets separated by crest of head, facet articulate with corresp. vert. & superior to it. Neck->connects head w/ shaft at level of tubercle; tubercle & shaft
manubrium lies @ level of bodies of T3 & T4 vert; thickest & widest of 3-part sternum; 1st rib fuses w/lateral border of manubr. (sternocostal synchondrosis); angle of Louis @ 2nd cost. cart. @ level of IVD <-> T4 & T5
Xiphoid Process lies @ T10 vert; cartilaginous in young people but ossified older than 40 yrs old, may fuse w/sternal body in elderly; important landmark: inferior limit of central thorax of inferior thor. aperture; midline marker for liver & inferior border of heart
Serratus Posterior Superior lies @ junction of neck & back; PA: nuchal lig, sp. proc. C7-T3 vert; DA: superior borders of 2-4 ribs; INN: 2nd-5th intercost. nrvs; ELEVATES superior 4 ribs, raises sternum & increases diameter of thorax
Serratus Posterior Inferior lies @ junction of thorac. & lumbar regions; PA: sp. proc. of T11-L2 vert; DA: inferior borders of 8-12 ribs near angles; INN: ventral rami of 9-12 t/spinal nrvs; DEPRESS RIBS preventing superior displacement by diaphram
External Intercostals muscles of inspiration - elevates ribs; 11 pairs; occupies between tubercles of ribs posteriorly to costochondral junctions anteriorly; run inferanteriorly from rib above to below; continuous w/ extern. oblique
Internal Intercostals muscles of expiration; 11 prs run deep to & at right angles to external intercostals, inferoposterior from floors of costal grooves to superior borders of ribs inferior to them; continuous w/ internal oblique muscles
Pulmonary Veins 2 on each side, carries oxygenated (arterial) blood from lungs to left atrium;
Left Coronary Artery arise from left aortic sinus of ascending aorta & passes <-> left aurical & pulm trunk; @ left end of coronary groove LCA splits into 2 branches -> anterior interventric. branch & circumflex branch (blank)
Coronary Sinus main vein of heart; receives anterior interventric. vein or GREAT CARDIAC VEIN at left & posterior intervent. (middle cardiac vein) & small cardiac veins at right. (blank)
Superior Vena Cava (SVC) returns blood from all structure superior to diaphragm except lungs & heart; passes infer. & ends @ level of 3rd costal cart. & enters right atrium; SVC lies in right side of superior mediastinum, anterolateral to trachea & posterolateral to ascend. aorta (blank)
External Oblique largest & most superficial of 3 flat anterolat. abdom. muscles; muscles anterolateral, aponeurosi anterior; direction of "fingers in pant pocket"; as muscle fibres pass infermedially, becomes aponeurotic approx. @ mid-clav. line & decussate @ linea alba medial to pubic tubercle, external oblique apon. attaches to pubic crest; inferiorly, inferior margin of apon. thickens & folds back to form inguinal lig. (<-> ASIS & pubic tubercle)
Transverse Abdominal innermost of 3 flat abdom. muscles (tranversomedial fibre direction) except for inferior ones that run parallel to internal oblique; fibres end in apon. contributing to formation of rectus sheath look up attachments
Psoas Major long thick fusiform; lies lateral to lumbar vert.; passes inferolat. deep to inguinal lig. to lesser trochanter of femur PA: transverse proc. of lumbar vert, sides of bodies of T12-L5 & intervening IVD; DA: strong tendon to lesser trochanter; INN: Lumbar plexus via ventral branches of L2-L4 nrv
Quadratus Lumborum thick musc. sheet in poster. abdom. wall; lies adjacent to lumbar transv. process; crossed by LATERAL ARCUATE LIG. subcostal nerve passes posterior to lig & runs inferolaterally on QL; branches of lumbar plexus run inferiorly on anterior surface of muscle
Ilium superior, flattened, fan-shaped part of hip bone; ALA is body & handle; BODY helps form acetabulum; iliac crest is rim of fan follows contour of ALA <-> ASIS & PSIS; anterior concave part forms iliac fossa (blank)
Ischium body & ramus; helps to form acetabulum & ramus forms obturator foramen; large posteroinferior protuberance is ischial tuberosity; small pointed posterior projection near junction of ramus & body is ishial spine concavity <-> ischial spine & tuberosity is lesser sciatic notch; larger concavity is greater sciatic notch superior to ischial spine & is formed in part of ilium
Greater Pelvis pelvis major or false pelvis; superior to pelvic inlet; location of abdom. viscera (ileum & sigmoid colon); bounded by abdom. wall anteriorly, iliac fossae posterolater & L5 & S1 vert posteriorly; cavity of greater pelvis is inferior part of abdom. cavity (blank)
Sacroiliac joints sacrum suspended <-> iliac bones & attached by interosseous & SI lig.; mvmt of slight gliding & rotary; sacrotuberous & sacrospinous lig. only limit upward mvmt of inferior end of sacrum thus provide resilience to SI region when weight increases in vert. (blank)
Lateral Pelvic Wall formed by hip bones & obturator foramen, closed by obturator membrane; obturator internus muscle cover & pad most of lat. pelv. wall; medial to muscle is obturator nrv & internal iliac vessels obturator internus pass posteriorly from lesser pelvis thru lesser sciatic foramen & turns sharply laterally to attach to greater trochanter of femur
posterior pelvic wall formed by sacrum & coccyx, adjacent parts of ilia & SI jts. Piriformis cover & pad wall posterlaterally. Each muscle leaves lesser pelvis thru greater sciatic foramen to attach to greater trochanter. Sacral plexus are medial to piriformis (blank)
pelvic floor formed by funnel-shaped pelvic diaphragm (levator ani & coccygeus); streches <-> pubis anter. & coccyx poster. & from lateral wall to other levator ani attached to internal surface of lesser pelvis; 3 parts -> pubococcygeus, puborectalis & iliococcygeus; forms muscular sling supporting abdominpelvic viscera
Created by: LInda_J