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A&P ch 1 key terms

A first look at the body key terms

Abdominal Quadrants LUQ, LLQ, RUQ, & RLQ
Abdominopelvic Cavity Consists of abdominal and pelvic cavity. Contains stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys and most of the small and large intestines. Also contains urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs,
Adhesion Molecules Proteins located on cell surface that allow cells of a tissue to recognize one another and stick together.
Adipocytes Lipocyte; fat cell; dominated by a droplet of fat.
Adipose tissue Kind of body tissue containing stored fat. Serves as source of energy, cushions and insulates vital organs.
ADP Energy depleted form of molecule.
Anatomical Position Subject is erect, facing the viewer, with feet pointed ahead, arms at sides, and the palms of the hands turned forward.
Appendicular Region Region of body consisting of the limbs or extremities.
ATP The general chemical energy source for energy-requiring cellular processes.
Axial Region Region of body consisting of the head, neck, and trunk.
Bilayer Double layer of phospholipids; outer boundry of plasma membrane.
Blood Plasma The fluid component of blood containing salts; some organic solutes; dissolved gases and proteins; and formed elements, including erythrocytes (rbc), leukocytes (wbc), and thrombocytes (platelets).
Body Cavities Two major hollow internal spaces that enclose internal organs; dorsal body cavity and ventral body cavity.
Bone Marrow The fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones.
Canaliculus A small canal or duct in some bones that allow nutients and oxygen to reach osteocytes and wastes to be removed.
Cancellous Bone (Trabecular Bone); inner, spongy structure that resembles a honeycomb; consists of a meshwork of mineralized trabeculae with bone marrow filling the spaces.
Cardiac Muscle Muscle tissue of the heart; responsible for circulating blood to all parts of the body.
Cartilage A strong, flexible, smooth material composed of collagen and chondroitin, that, in adults, supports some soft tissues; covers the ends of the bones; and provides bearing surfaces for joints.
Chondrocytes A cell that makes up the tissue of cartilage.
Chondroitin A tough, flexible material that is a major component of cartilage.
Collagen Giant, fibrous molecules that may be arranged in bundles or as a mesh.
Compact Bone Very dense bone tissue that forms the outer shell of bones and composes a large part of the long bones of the arms, legs, and ribs. It is also called cortical bone or lamellar bone.
Connective Tissue Tissue that serves as the framework of the body, surrounding, supporting and connecting organs, muscles, joints and other body parts.
Connective Tissue Proper Loosely arranged structural framework for almost every tissue.
Cranial Cavity Body cavity that contains the brain.
Cuboidal Shaped like a cube; cells are approximately as wide as they are tall.
Cytoplasm Liquid portion of the inside of a cell in which other parts of the cell reside.
Cytoskeleton The scaffold of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and move.
Differentiation A process in which unspecialized cells acquire cellular structures and become specialized to perform specific functions.
Directional Terms Terms used to describe the relationships of individual structures and regions of the body.
Ectoderm One of three tissue layers in embryo; through development will produce skin and nervous system.
Elastin A protein, similar to collagen, found in connective tissue that have elastic properties.
Endocrine Glands Glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The main endocrine glands include the pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands.
Endoderm Innermost layer of cell in embyonic development; will produce digestive system of adult.
Endoplasmic Reticulum An internal membrane system that contains proteins and lipids destined for various metabolic fates within the cell, for secretion to the exterior, or for incorporation into the plasma membrane.
Epithelial Tissue Membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body.
Erythrocytes Red blood cells;a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues.
Exocrine Glands Glands that secrete there products by way of ducts to the exterior; salivary glands to mouth; sweat glands to the skin.
Extrinsic Plasma membrane protein that are less tightly attached and may be removed by chemical treatments.
Fibroblasts A cell from which connective tissue develops; cells that help make up the support structure for tissues and organs
Formed Elements The red and white blood cells and platelets found in whole blood.
Frontal Section Referring to surfaces of the body past the midline of the body, of the front
Glia Non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for the brain's neurons.
Glycoproteins A protein that has sugar molecules attached to it.
Golgi Apparatus A series (stack) of flattened, membrane-bound sacs (saccules) involved in the storage, modification and secretion of proteins and lipids destined to leave the cell (extracellular) and for use within the cell (intracellular).
Haversian Canal A series of tubes around narrow channels formed by lamellae. This is the region of bone called compact bone. Osteons are arranged in parallel to the long axis of the bone.
Horozontal Section A cut at right angles to the midline and dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
Hormones Special chemicals secreted by endocrine glands, which cause changes in specific areas of the body.
Hyaluronic Acid A viscous slippery substance that lubricates the joints, maintains the shape of the eyeballs, and is a key component of connective tissue
Intercellular Material describes something which is shared, or a process which occurs, between two or more cells in a structure.
Intermediate Filaments A family of related proteins that share common structural and sequence features.
Intinsic Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts; "intrinsic muscles." Intrinsic membrane proteins are tightly associated with the membrane and in some cases span it from on side to the other.
Lacunae A small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.
Lamellae A thin membrane that is one of the calcified layers that form bones.
Leukocytes A white blood cell, colorless, with a nucleus, found in blood and lymph. Produce antibodies and move through the walls of vessels to migrate to sites of injury, where they isolate and destroy dead tissue, foreign protein and bacteria.
Ligaments Fibrous tissue that connects bone to other bone.
Mesoderm The middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue.
Microfilaments Long thin fiber that functions in the movement and support of the cell.
Microtubules Small tubes made of protein and found in cells and is part of the cytoskeleton.
Midline The median plane of the body. An imaginary line from top to bottom of a person separating left from right.
Midsagittal Section Vertical plane at midline dividing body into right and left halves.
Mitochondria Small, energy-producing organelles inside cells.
Neurons Nerve cell: a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses.
Nucleus "Control center" of cell containing the genetic material (DNA) together with molecules that affect expression of specific parts of the genetic code.
Organelles A specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer.
Osteoblasts Cells which produce bone.
Osteocytes A star-shaped cell, is the most abundant cell found in compact bone.
Osteons The basic units of compact bone, consisting of tightly packed concentric rings of tissue with a blood vessel running through the central channel (Haversian canal).
Oxidative Phosphorylation An enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP.
Parasagittal Planes Situated alongside of or adjacent to a sagittal location or a sagittal plane.
Plasma Membrane A thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell.
Pseudostratified Simple epithelia that consist of one layer of cells but are not tall enough to reach all the way from one side to the other.
Receptors A structure on a cell wall that binds with specific molecules so that they can be absorbed into the cell in order to control certain functions; Any specialized cell or structure that responds to sensory stimuli.
Ribosomes Molecular machines composed of proteins and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA). Synthesize proteins based on codes delivered to them in form of messenger RNA(mRNA).
Scrotal Cavity Cavity present only in males.
Simple Epithelia Epithelial tissue that is only one cell layer thick.
Skeletal Muscle A muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and affects movement of parts of the skeleton.
Smooth Muscle A muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart).
Spinal Cord A major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain; a long tubelike structure extending from the base of the brain through the vertebral canal to the upper lumbar region.
Spinal Roots Nerve root; the initial segment of a nerve leaving the central nervous system. Types include: cranial nerve root, the beginning of one of the twelve pairs leaving the central nervous system from the brain stem or the highest levels of the spinal cord.
Squamous Flat, scaly epithelial cells of body surface.
Stem Cells Cells in the body that are capable of renewing themselves and becoming any number of different cell types. Stem cells are made in the bone marrow.
Stratified Epithelia Epithelial tissue composed of multiple cell layers.
Tendons A tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Thoracic Cavity A cavity enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart.
Thrombocytes Platelets; manufactured in the bone marrow, help in the clotting of blood (coagulation).
Trabeculae Finger-like projections of cardiac muscle cells that form ridges in the ventricular wall.
Transport Proteins Proteins which carry a substance from one place and leave them in another; proteins are often involved in transporting large or charged molecules across cell membranes.
Transverse Section A cut at right angles to the midline and dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
Ventral Body Cavity Body cavity that is in the anterior (front) aspect of the human body. It is made up of the thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity.
Vertebral Column Spinal column: the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord.
Vertebral Canal Spinal canal: the canal in successive vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.
Viscera The internal organs of the body cavity.
Right Refers to the patient's (not the viewer's) right.
Left Refers to the patient's (not the viewer's) left.
Superior Above; toward the head.
Inferior Below; away from the head.
Anterior In front; nearer to the front.
Posterior In back; nearer to the back.
Medial Nearer to the midline.
Lateral Farther from the midline.
Ipsilateral On the same side as.
Contralateral On the opposite side from.
Proximal Nearer to the attachment of an extremity or the point of origin of a structure.
Distal More distant from the attachment of an extremity or the point of origin of a structure.
Superficial Toward or on the surface.
Deep Away from the surface.
Intermediate Between two structures.
Axial Region Region of body consisting of the head, neck, and trunk.
Appendicular Region Region of the body consisting of the limbs or extremities.
Cephalic Head.
Cervical Neck.
Thoracic Chest and abdominopelvic.
Upper Extremity Arms, hands.
Lower Extremity Legs, feet.
Right Hypochondriac Region Region of abdomen containing the liver.
Right Lumbar Region Region of abdomen containing the ascending colon of large intestine.
Right Iliac Region Region of abdomen containing the appendix.
Epigastric Region Region of the abdomen containing the pancreas and stomach.
Umbilical Region Region of the abdomen containing the transverse colon and small intestine.
Hypogastric Region Region of the abdomen containing the rectum and urinary bladder.
Left Hypochondriac Region Region of the abdomen containing the spleen.
Left Lumbar Region Region of the abdomen containing the descending colon.
Left Iliac Region Region of the abdomen containing the descending colon and small intestine.
Four Tissue Types Nervous, epithelial, muscle, and connective tissue.
Nervous Tissue Specialized tissue for processing information from the exterior and interior of the body and regulating the function many body systems.
Muscle Tissue Specialized tissue for contraction and generation of force.
Organ A structure that is composed of two or more tissues and carries out multiple functions.
Eleven Major Organ Systems Nervous, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, lymphatic, reproductive, endocrine, immune, integumentary.
Created by: ymello



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