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Anatomy Lesson 1

Introduction to basic human anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Anatomy The study of the structure of the body.
Physiology The study of the functions of the body.
Functions of the body include: Respiration, circulation, digestion and reproduction.
The body is a ____ and ____ machine. Chemical and Physical
Each body is engineered to do a particular job, these jobs are _____, the body is subject to certain ____ ___. Functions - Natural Laws
In the laboratory, anatomy is studied by _____. Dissection
SECT:___ cut
DIS:___ apart
MORPH body, body form
ECTO all energy is out going
ENDO all energy is stored inside
MESO between, in the middle
ECTOMORPH slim individual
ENDOMORPH broad individual
MESOMORPH body type between the two others, "muscular" type
_____ are slim individuals and are more susceptible to lung infections. Ectomorphs
_____ are more susceptible to heart disease. Endomorphs
Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that cannot be seen with the unaided eye. You need a microscope.
Gross anatomy by systems is the study of organ systems such as the respiratory system or the digestive system.
Gross anatomy by regions considers anatomy in terms of regions such as the trunk, upper member, or lower member.
Neuroanatomy studies the nervous system.
Functional anatomy is the study of relationships between functions and structures.
The human body is organized into _____ _____ _____ ______ and the _____ cells tissues organs organ systems and the total organism.
Cells are the smallest living unit of body construction.
A tissue is a grouping of like cells working together Examples are muscle tissue and nervous tissue
An organ is a structure composed of several different tissues performing a particular function Examples include the lungs and the heart
Organ systems are groups of organs which together perform an overall function Examples are the respiratory system and the digestive system
The total organism is the individual human being
The torso includes the back and trunk
The trunk includes the thorax (chest) and abdomen
At the lower end of the trunk is the pelvis
The perineum is the portion of the body forming the floor of the pelvis
The lungs the heart and the digestive system are found in the trunk
Head and Neck The brain eyes ears mouth pharynx and larynx are found in this region
Each upper member includes a shoulder arm forearm wrist and hand
Each lower member includes a hip thigh leg ankle and foot
SUB below - prefix
CUTIS skin - root
SUBCUTANEOUS below the skin
MYO muscle - prefix
CARDIUM heart - root
MYOCARDIUM muscular wall of the heart
TONSIL tonsil (a specific organ) - root
ITIS inflammation - suffix
TONSILLITIS an inflammation of the tonsils
The anatomical position is an artificial posture of the human body This position is used as a standard reference throughout the medical profession
The anatomical position The body stands erect, with heels together. Upper members are along the sides, with the palms of the hands facing forward. The head faces forward.
Sagittal planes are vertical planes that pass through the body from front to back
The median or midsagittal plane is the vertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves
Horizontal (transverse) planes are parallel to the floor They are perpendicular to both the sagittal and frontal planes
Frontal (coronal) planes are vertical planes which pass through the body from side to side They are perpendicular to the sagittal plane
Anterior (or ventral) refers to the front of the body
Posterior (or dorsal) refers to the back of the body
Medial means toward or nearer the midline of the body
Lateral means away from the midline or toward the side of the body
Superficial means closer to the surface of the body
Deep means toward the center of the body or body part
Proximal and distal are terms applied specifically to the limbs
Proximal means nearer to the shoulder joint or the hip joint
Distal means further away from the shoulder joint or the hip joint
TRAPEZIUS trapezoid (shape)
AD toward
DUCT to carry (function)
MAGNUS very large (size)
ERYTHRO red (color)
CYTE cell
BI two
CEPS head (shape)
BRACHII of the arm (location)
A cell is the microscopic unit of body organization
A typical animal cell includes (10) a cell membrane a nucleus a nuclear membrane cytoplasm ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria Golgi apparatus centrioles and lysosomes
The nucleus plays a central role in the cell
Information is stored in the nucleus and distributed to guide the life processes of the cell This information is in a chemical form called nucleic acids
Two types of structures found in the nucleus are chromosomes and nucleoli
Chromosomes are composed of both nucleic acid and protein
Chromosomes contain genes
Genes are the basic units of heredity which are passed from parents to their children
Genes guide the activities of each individual cell.
The cell membrane surrounds and separates the cell from its environment
The cell membrane allows certain materials to pass through it as they enter or leave the cell
The semifluid found inside the cell, but outside the nucleus, is called the cytoplasm
Mitochondria are the "powerhouses" of the cell
The mitochondria provide the energy wherever it is needed for carrying on the cellular functions
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes cavities and canals
The endoplasmic reticulum helps in the transfer of materials from one part of the cell to the other
Ribosomes are "protein factories" in the cell
Ribosomes are composed mainly of nucleic acids which help make proteins according to instructions provided by the genes
Centrioles help in the process of cell division
Lysosomes are membrane bound spheres which contain enzymes that can digest intracellular structures or bacteria
The usual process of cell multiplication is called mitosis
From one cell we get two new cells
The genes of the new cells are identical to the genes of the original cell
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two ways by which the cell mass of the body increases
With HYPERTROPHY there is an increase in the size of the individual cells no new cells are formed
With HYPERPLASIA there is an increase in the total number of cells
ATROPHY is seen when there is a loss of cellular mass.
Created by: voyweiser