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A&P Lab Ch 3-5

2nd Anatomy Test

Mitochondria Makes ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
Ribosomes Site of Protein Sythesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) Processes and transports proteins made at attached ribosomes; synthesizes phospholipids
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Fatty acid and steroid synthesis; detoxifies toxic substances
Golgi complex Receives and modifies proteins from RER; sorts and transports them
Secretory vesicles Secrete substances outside the cell by exocytosis
Lysosomes Enzymes digest and recycle worn out organelles and substances entering the cell; can digest the cell
Peroxisomes Produce hydrogen peroxide and detoxify harmful substances
Cytoskeleton 3 kinds of protein filaments used maintain shape and movement
Centrioles Form mitotic spindle; needed to form cilia and flagella
Cilia hair-like cell projections that move fluids and particles
Flagella Long cell projection whip-like motion moves sperm
arrector pili bundle of smooth muscle cells attached to the connective tissue sheath around the hair follicle (causes "goosebumps")
Sudoriferous glands sweat glands, secrete a watery substance that is important in excretion and body temperature regulation (general)
Eccrine glands Ducts from the eccrine glands deposit their secretions, called sweat, on the epithelial surface (most common, off by its self)
Apocrine glands found only in the axilla (genital area)and the nipples (areolae)This secretion, which is deposited on the distal end of the hair root is odorless until broken down by bacteria
Sebaceous glands oil glands, are found surrounding hair follicles and deposit sebum, an oily substance that lubricates the skin and hair, into the neck of the follicle (sourrounds hair folicle, deposits product under skin)
Epidermis keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Dermis consists of two regions: the papillary (papilla = nipples) region and the reticular (reticul- = net-like) region
Papillary Region deep to the stratum basale of the epidermis and the basement membrane, finger like projections that extend into the epidermis (causes fingerprints)
reticular layer deeper and much thicker region, composed mainly of dense, irregular connective tissue whose collagen fibers provide the skin with strength and whose elastic fibers provide elasticity
Areolar connective tissue most abundant connective tissue. It contains fibroblasts, all three fiber types, a semi-fluid (viscous) ground substance, and a variety of cells involved in body
Adipose tissue contains fibroblasts, fibers, ground substance, and adipose cells, has a greater number of adipocytes(lipid-storing cells)& little extracellular matrix, Lipid within the adipose cells occupies most of the cell volume
dense regular connective tissue extracellular matrix is packed with parallel bundles of collagen fibers that run in the direction of the pulling forces applied to the tissue
Dense irregular connective tissue like dense tissue but the bundles of collagen fibers are irregularly arranged
elastic connective tissue the extracellular matrix is packed with elastic fibers, and fibroblasts are found in the spaces between these fibers
Cartilage extracellular matrix consists of collagen and elastic fibers embedded in a firm gelatinous ground substance/Collagen fibers give the tissue strength, & the ground substance, binds water to form a firm gel, gives cartilage its resiliency
Bone matrix is organized in layers called lamellae and consists of collagen fibers, ground substance, and inorganic salts
Osteocytes (mature bone cells) are trapped in spaces called lacunae
Blood composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma
Plasma extracellular matrix, and its fibers are produced and observed only during blood clotting



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