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Final A&P 2

Chapter 13 & 14 Vocabulary for Final

QuestionAnswer
Albumin protein in blood
Antibody protein produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens.
Antigen Substance usually foreign that stimulates the production of an antibody.
Basophil Granulocytic white blood cell with granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye.
Bilirubin Orange-yellow pigment in bile.
Coagulation Blood Clotting
Colony-Stimulating Factor (CSF) Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells.
Differentiation Change in structure and function of a cell as it matures.
Electrophoresis Method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge.
Eosinophil Granuloyctic white blood cell with granules that stain red with the acidic dye eosin.
Erythrocyte Red blood cell. There are about 5 million per microliter or cubic millimeter of blood.
Erythropoietin (EPO) Hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates formation of red blood cells.
Fibrin Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot.
Fibrinogen Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process.
Globulins Part of blood containing different plasma proteins.
Granulocyte White blood cell with nemerous dark-staining granules.
Heme Iron-containing nonprotein portion of hemoglobin molecule.
Hemoglobin Blood protein containing iron.
Hemolysis Destruction or breakdown of blood (red blood cells).
Heparin Anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells.
Immune Reaction Response of the immune system to foreign invasion.
Immunoglobulin Protein with antibody activity.
Leukocyte White blood cell.
Lymphocyte Mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies.
Macrophage Moncyte that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces.
Megakaryocyte Large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow.
Monocye Large mononuclear phagocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow.
Mononuclear Pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single round nucleus; lymphocyte and moncytes are mononuclear leukocytes.
Neutrophil Granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow; a phagocyte with neutral-staining granules.
Plasma Liquid portion of blood; contains water, protein, salts, nutrients, hormones and vitamins.
Plasmapheresis Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge.
Platelet Smallest blood cell (thrombocyte); these cells clump at sites of injury to prevent bleeding and facilitate clotting.
Prothrombin Plasma protein.
Reticulocyte Immature erythrocyte with a network of strands that are seen after staining the cell with special dyes.
Rh Factor Antigen on red blood cells of Rh positive individulas.
Serum Plasma minus clotting protein and cells. Clear yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot.
Stem Cell Unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms.
Thrombin Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation.
Thrombocyte Platelet.
Acquired Immunity Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.
Adenoids Masses of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.
Antibody Protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens.
Antigen Substance that the body recognizes as foreign.
Axillary Node Any of the 20 to 30 lymph nodes in the armpit.
B Cell Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.
Cell-Mediated Immunity An immune response involving T lymphocytes; antigens are destroyed by direct action of cells, as opposed to by antibodies.
Cervical Node One of many lymph nodes in the neck region.
Cytokine Protein (made by T lymphocytes) that aids antigen destruction.
Cytotoxic T cell T lymphocyte that directly kill foreign cells.
Dendritic Cell Cell (specialized macrophage) that ingests antigens and presents them to T cells.
Helper T Cell Lymphocyte that aids B cells in recgonizing antigens and stimulating antibody production.
Humoral Immunity Immune response in which B cells transform into plasma cells and secrete antibodies.
Immune Response Body's capacity to resis foreign organisms and toxins that can damage tissue and organs.
Immunoglobulins Antibodies (gamma globulins) such as IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in humoral immunity.
Immunotherapy Use of immunologic knowledge and techniques to treat or prevent disease.
Inguinal Node One of several lymph nodes in the groin region.
Interferons Antiviral proteins secreted by T cells.
Interleukins Protein that stimulates the growth of B or T lymphocytes and activate specific components of the immune response.
Interstitial Fluid Fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries.
Killer T cell Cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes that recgonizes and destroys foreign cells (viruses and tumor cells).
Lymph Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessles and collected from tissue throughout the body.
Lymph Capillaries Tiniest lymphatic vessles.
Lymphoid Organs Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland.
Lymph Node Stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels.
Lymph Vessel Carrier of lymph throughout the body.
Macrophage Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues in the body.
Mediastinal Node Any of many lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic chest cavity.
Monoclonal Antibody Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens.
Natural Immunity An individual's own genetic ability to fight off disease.
Plasma Cell Lymphoid cell that secretes an antibody and originates from B lymphocytes.
Right Lymphatic Duct Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body.
Spleen Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells.
Supressor T Cells Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes.
T Cell Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland.
Tolerance In the thymus, T lymphocytes learn to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as "self" or friendly.
Thoracic Duct Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and form the lest side of the body above the diaphragm. It empties the lymph into the veins in the upper chest.
Thymus Gland Organ in the mediastinum that produces T lymphocytes and aids in the immune response.
Tonsils Masses of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx.
Toxin Poison, a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals or plants.
Vaccination Introduction of altered antigens (viruses or bacteria) to produce an immune response and protection against disease.
Vaccine Weakened or killed microorganisms or toxins administered to induce immunity to infection or disease.
CANDIDIASIS Yeast-like fungus (Candida), normally present in the mouth, skin, intestinal tract, and vagina, overgrows, causing infection of the mouth (thrush), respiratory tract, and skin.
CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTION Yeast-like fungus (Cryptococcus) causes lung, brain, and blood infections. Pathogen is found in pigeon droppings, nesting places, air, water and soil.
CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS Parasitic infection of the gastrointestinal tract and brain and spinal cord.
CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) infection Viral causes enteritis and retinitis (inflammation of the retina at the back of the eye). Found in saliva, semen, cervical secretions, urine, feces, blood, and breast milk, but usually causes disease only when the immune system is compromised.
HERPES SIMPLEX Viral infection causes small blisters on the skin of the lips or nose or on the genitals. Herpes simplex virus also can cause encephalitis.
HISTOPLASMOSIS (Histo) Fungal infection caused by inhalation of dust contaminated with Histoplasma capsulatum; causes fever, chills and lung infection. Pathogen is found in bird and bat droppings.
MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM-INTRACELLULARE INFECTION (MAI) Bacterial disease.
PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia (PCP) Bacterial Infection.
TOXOPLASMOSIS (Toxo) Parasitic infection.
TUBERCULOSIS (TB) Bacterial disease.
Anisocytosis cells are unequal in size (abnormalities of red blood cells)
Hypochromia cells have redyced color (less hemoglobin) (abnormalities of red blood cells)
Macrocytosis Cells are large (abnormalities of red blood cells)
Microcytosis Cells are small (abnormalities of red blood cells)
Poikilocytosis Cells are irregularly shaped (abnormalities of red blood cells)
Spherocytosis Cells are rounded (abnormalities of red blood cells)
Created by: ErinFox2