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chapter 18&20

4 mechanisms of intercellular transmissions 1. direct2. paracine3. hormones4. synaptic
direct communication transmission through gap junctions(tube-like); limited to adj. cells of the same type
paracine comm. transmission: through ISF; limited to local areas, target cells must have receptors
endocrine communication transmission: through cir. system; target cells are primarily in other tissues and organs
synaptic communication transmission: across synp. celft; limited to very specific areas.
Endocrine system function maintains homeostasis
endocrine system secretes chemical messages
why is the endocrine system unique secreted into body fluids; hormones act over long distances; secreted in small quantites
endocrine system regulates metabolism
describe eicosanoids important paracine factors that corrd. cellular activity and affect enezymatic processes such as blood contraction
function of leukotrienes coord. tissue responses to injury or disease
function of prostaglandins coord. local cellular activites
function of thromboxanes involved in inflammatory response; have strong paracrine effects
function of prostacyclins have same affect as thromboxanes; involved in infl. response; strong paracrin effect
explain basic structure and enterence of steriod into the cell steriods are lipids structually similar to cholestrol; steriod hormones are bound to specific transport proteins in plasma. liver absorbs and converts them to a soulable form that is excreated.
enterence of nonsteriod do not enter cell but bind to plsma membrane
two second messenger enezymes describe them messengers are molecules that relay signals recieved at receptors; amplify strengh of signal
endocrine reflect: simple and complex simple= onecomplex= 2 or more hormones
purpose of a second messenger in non-steroid hormones cause signal strength to amplify
difference b/t up and down regulation of hormones up: the absense of a hormone triggers incrase in number of hormonesdown: presnse of hormones triggers a decrease in number of hormone receptors
structure and function of Growth Hormone (GH) function: stimulates cell grown and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis
ACTH structure and function function: stimulates the relase of steriod hormones by adrenal cortex.
FSH structure and function function: secretion of estrogen, follicle dev. stimulation of sperm maturation
LH s and f induces ovulation, promotes secretion by ovaries(f). secretion of progesterone/ testosterone (m).
The ACTH target cells suprarenal cortex
PRL production of milk;
PRL target cells mammary glands
GH target cells all cells
FSH target cells follicle cells of ovaries; nurse cells of testes
LH target cells follicle cells of ovaries
MSH increased melanin synthese in epidermisM
MSH target cells melanocytes
ductless, glandular: high vascular; gives every endocrine cell immediate accress to circulartory system. turn on endocrine glands or support functions of other organs Adendohypophysis
why is neurohypophysis unique doesnt produce just secretes
in ____ tissue, GH stim. the breakdown of stored _____ by adipocytes, which release fatty acids in blood. as fatty acid levels rise, many tissues stop breaking down glucose and start breaking down fatty acids to gen. ATP glucose sparing effect
in ____, GH stim. break down of ____ reserves by liver cells, which release glucose into blood stream. tissues now met. fatty acids rather than glucose, blood glucose rises. elevation of blood glucose has been called diabetogenic effect
L, S and F of hypophseal portal system L: anteior lobe of pituitary gland and hypothal.s: 2 capillary beds connected in series by venulesF: carries blood from cap. in hypotalamus to cap. in adenohypophysis
hormones pro. by hypothalamus ADH and OXY
decreases amt of water lost at the kidneys ADH
stim. SM contraction in walls of uterus, promoting delivery and labor OXy
L, S and F of thyroid L: anterior sturface of tracheaS: 2 lobes of thyroid gland united by isthmusF:controls metabolism, pro T3, T4 and iodine
describe structure of adrenal medulla and function S: small and triangularF: secretes E and NE
function of cortisol roles in reg. of blood pressue and cardiovascular function as well as reg. use of proteins carbs and fats.
function of melationin prevents damg. by free radiclaes to the skin and protects underlying tissue (basal lamina)
S, L and function of pancreas L: posterior to parietal pericardiumS: flatted elongated glands, pancreatic isletsF: exo; secretes digestive enezymes endo: hormones pro insulin and glucagon
work in opposition of each other antagonisitc
ex; glucagon and insulin antagonistic
work together or additive function synergistic effect
ex: GH works better with glucocoriods synergistic
one hormone is nec. for another one to work permissive effect
ex: E and T3 and T4 permissive
things work diff. when together. usually complementary integrative effect
ex: calcitrol and PTH integrative
GH underproduction pituitary growth failure
Gh overproduction Gigantism
GH princible signs and symptoms for over retarded growth
GH pric. signs and symptons for under excessive growth
AHD overproduction and symptoms diabetes insipidus; poluria or dehydration
AHD under and symp. SIADH; increase body weight
T3 and T4 over and symp myxedema; low metabolic rate
T3 and T4 under and symptoms Graves disease, high metabolic rate
PTH under and symp hypoparathyoidism; muscular weakness
PTH over and symp hyperparathoidism; weak and brittle bones
Insulin over and symp. Diabetes mellitus; high blood glucose
Insulin over and symp Excess insulin; low blood glucose levels
MCs under and symp Hypoaldosteronism; polyuria
MCs over and symps. Aldosteronism; increase body weight
GCs under and symp addison disease; inability to tolerate stress
GCs over and symp. cushing diease; impared gluclose metabolism
E, NE overproduction and symp pheochromocytoma; high metabolic rate
estrogen under and symp hypogonadism; sterility
estrogen over and symp; adrenogenital syndrom; overpro. of androgens
androgens under and symp hypogonadism; sterility
androgens over and symp adrenogenital syndrom; ab. pro of estrogen
S, L and F of pericardium L: sack or skin around heartS: loose elastic tissueF: secures heart in place
Endocardium S, L and F S:endothelium and areolar CTL: inner surfaceF: forms cuspin valves
Myocardium S, L and F S: cardiac muscle and CTL: middle wall of heartF: forms bulk of heart
Epicardium S, L and F S: areolar tissue and mesotheliumL: covers outer surfaceF: protects heart
4 heart chambers S, L and f S: l:F:Pumps blood throughout heart and body
2 AV valvles S: fibrous tissueL: opening between atrium and ventriclesF: permit blood flow in one direct only. atria to ventricles
Created by: Mollie28



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