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Principle of Meat

on cooking chp.10-11

inspection examination of meats and poultry produced for consumption in the united states.
chicken dark meat characteristics legs and thighs; more fat more connective. tissue and longer cooking times.
carving to cut cooked meat or poultry into portions
trussing tie poultry with butcher's twine into compact shape for cooking
list 3 additional influences on collagen acid: marinates or acids n cooking liquid help tenderize. Enzymes: naturally present n meats, thus importance of aging. meat tenderizers: not recommended since they generally on effect the surface and can alter the texture adversely
connective tissue tissue found throughout on animals body that binds together and supports other tissues such as muscles
butchers yield amount of usable meat (as opposed to fat and bones) ona carcass. apply to beef and lamb 1 greatest 5 the smallest
jus (zhoo) french for "juice" which can refer to both fruit and vegetable juices as well as the natural juices exuded from meat. jus de citron= orange juice; jus de viande = juices from meat dish served au jus presented with its own natural juices
broiler/fryer a young chicken. 13wks of age with soft, smooth textured skin, relatively lean areas bone most versatile can use any cooking method.
free range chicken has no legal restrictions on its meaning or use in marketing. generally only implies that the birds have had access to the outside
fabricated cuts individual portions cut from a subprimal
myocommata very thin sheets of delicate connective tissue separating myotomes
USDA meat grades for veal prime, choice, good, standard, utility, cull
USDA meat grades for lamb prime, choice, good, utility, cull
quality meat grading is based on what marbling, maturity of animal, texture firmness and color
what are characteristics fast contracting shorter, thinner and easier to tear apart (ie cooking or chewing)
meat inspectors identify meat as what healthy (no disease), sound (clean, sanitary), wholesome (not adulterated), properly labled (it is what it says it is)
chicken grading is based on what shape of carcass, amount of flesh,amount of flesh, amount of fat, absence of pinfeathers, condition of skin, blemishes and bruises
rack primal cut of lamb between the shoulder and loin. contains eight ribs and portions of the back bone. valued for its tender rib eye muscle aka hotel rack
scallopini sauteed cutlets ( usually veal or poultry) that have been pounded thin and coated with flour.
tournedos a beef steak cut from the tenderloin measuring 3/4 to 1" and 2 to 2.5" in diameter. very lean sometimes wrapped in pork fat or bacon prior to grilling or broiling.classically served on fried bread rounds and topped with a sauce such as mushrooms sauce.
3 additional ways to tenderize elastin pounding, cubing, jacquarding (ex: cubed steak, chicken fried steak,scallopini) grinding - hamburger. slicing very thin across london broil fajitas brisket
sauces for grilled meat prepared in advance (no pan to deglaze) Bearnaise, hollandaise, compound butters, salsas, relishes
portion controlled cuts small individual cut from entire carcass ready to cook and serve
medium well very little pink at the center almost brown throughout. firm stringy 155-165deg
5 examples of meats breaking down collagen osso buco, pot roast, brisket, braised beef, stews
primal cuts round sirloin shortloin rib chuch flank short plate brisket and shank
roaster 3-5 month old chicken suitable for any cooking method young tender meat, smooth textured skin. 31/2-5lbs
hen a mature female chk over 10 months of age. flavorful but less tender meat. best for stew or braising
capon the class of surgically castrated male chk. they have well flavored meat and soft smooth skin
choice grading moderate, modest or small marbling
6 types of chicken broiler/fryer 9-12wks generally 45 days; roaster 3-5mths; capon castrated male less than 8mths old; hen mature female over 10 mths; cock/rooster mature male over 10mths; rock cornish game hen special breed 5-6wks old 3/4-2lbs
myoglobin most color in red meat is due to myoglobin (not blood) responsible for storing oxygen in muscle tissue. muscles which are used more and need more oxygen are darker in color
silverskin elastin; a tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles
medium rosy pink to red center; slightly firm; springy 140-150deg
chicken white meat characteristics breast and wings; less fat, less connective tissue and shorter cooking times
rare large deep red center, spongy, very slight resistance 125-130deg
yield grade a grading program for meat that measures the amount of usable meat on a carcass
well done feel quite firm and spring back quickly when pressed. no red
au jus (aw zhoo) roasted meats, poultry or game served with their natural, unthickened juices
green meat freshly slaughtered meats that have not had sufficient time to age and develop tenderness and flavor
poultry cooking methods saute, braising, stewing, steaming, boil, simmer
USDA meat grades for beef prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter, canner
marbling whitish steaks of inter and intramuscular fat
slicer an electric tool that is used to slice meat, bread, cheese, or raw vegetables into uniform slices. it has a circular blade that runs at high speed, food is placed in a carrier and passed against the blade.
fond lie aka jus lie; a sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch often used like a demi glace esp to produce small sauces
shish kabob chunks of marinated meat (sometimes fish) and veg that are threaded on a skewer and grilled or broiled. aka shashlik
primal cuts primary divisions of muscle bone and connective tissue produced by the initial butchering of the carcass
meat grading designation of quality or yield; optional and must be paid for b y the meat packer
grading a series of voluntary programs offered by the us dept of agriculture to designate a foods overall quality
a point french term for cooking to the ideal degree of doneness; when applied to meat refers to cooking it medium rare
gluten an elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated
free range animals allowed to move freely and roam for natural foods and grasses
pot roast usually an inexpensive, less tender cut of beef that is seafood and braised slowly in a covered pot with a little liquid
other poultry excluding chickens squab is under 1lb; geese is 6-10lbs; muscovy duck; turkey is 4-30lbs; peking is 2-6lbs; quail, ostrich, pheasant
medium rare bright red center, some resistance, slightly springy 130-140deg
Created by: 1338553148