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Module 2cc A&P

Introduction of the Human Body

QuestionAnswer
muscle cell is elongated muscle fiber; surrounded by a cell membrane called sarcolemma;cell membranes at several points penetrates deep into the interior forming transverse tubules (T tubules)
within muscle fiber is a specialized endoplamic reticulum called sarcoplasmic reticulum
myofibrils long cylindrical strucures that each muscle fiber is composed of
sarcomeres series of contractile units that make up the myofibrils
actin and myosin contractile proteins
myosin heads structures that help in the contracting of muscles
crossbridges mysoin heads make contact with actin and myosinforms a temporary brigde
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and calcium play important role in contraction and relaxation of muscle; ATP helps the myosin heads forma nd break crossbridges witht the actin but can work if calcium is present
skeletal muscle contraction can take place only when the muscle is first stimulated by a nerve
moter or somatic nerve type of nerve that supplies the skeletal muscle
neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where motor nervemeats the muscle
four steps involved in the transfer of information from nerve to muscle at the NMJ stimulation of nerve causes electrical signal - neurotransmitter at the NMJ is called acetylcholine (ACh)
nerve impulse causes the vesicles to move toward and fuse with the nerve ending ACh is released
ACh diffuses across the space and binds to receptor site on muscle membrande
ACh stimulates the receptors and causes an electical signal to develop along the muscle membrane ACh is destroyed by acetylcholinesterase
myasthenia gravis disease that affects the NMJ; the symptoms of the disease are due to damaged receptor sites on the muscle membrane causes muscle weakness as the disease progresses person experience difficulty breathing
neuromuscular blockade caused by curare curare is a skeletal muscle blocker
effects of neurotoxins on muscle function certain bacteria; Clostridium tetani (a bacterium) causes excessive firing of motor nerves
tetanus overstimulation of the muscle membrane and severe muscle spam and
Created by: janmaire