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C5: Middle Ages

Review for Chapter 5: Europe in the Middle Ages test

vassal in medieval Europe, a man who is given land in exchange for his loyalty
manor a large estate, often including a village and farmland; ruled by a lord in medieval Europe
Middle Ages the years between ancient and modern times; from about 500 to 1500
self-sufficient able to supply one's own needs
medieval of the Middle Ages
serf a person who lived on and farmed a lord's land in feudal times; he or she did not own land and depended upon the lord for protection
Charlemagne king of the Franks who conquered much of western Europe; great patron of literature and learning
Gaul a region of France, Belgium, and parts of Germany and northern Italy; occupied by the ancient Gauls
feudalism a system of power in Europe during the Middle Age, in which kings and queens held the most power, followed by nobles, knights, peasants, and finally serfs
clergy persons ordained to perform certain religious duties
excommunicate to expel or prevent someone from taking part in church life
guild an association of all the people in a town or village who practiced a certain trade
apprentice an unpaid worker who is being trained in a craft
chivalry the noble qualities that knights were supposed to have; bravery, loyalty, and doing heroic deeds to win the love of a worthy woman
troubadour a traveling performer who wandered from place to place singing songs and reciting poems about the chivalrous deeds of knights
Crusades several military expeditions between the years of 1095 to 1272 supported by the Catholic church to win back the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks
Pope Urban II pope who called all good Christians to take up arms against the Seljuk Turks in order to reclaim the Holy Land
Peter the Hermit French religious leader who led one of the first bands of people of the First Crusade
Saladin Muslim leader of the Seljuk Turks who allowed Christians to reenter the Holy Land
Holy Land also known as Palestine, which includes parts of the modern nation of Israel
Jerusalem capital city of the modern nation of Israel; considered a holy city for Christians, Muslims, and Jews
nation a community that shares a government and sometimes a common language and culture; in medieval Europe, kingdoms became nations as the kings gained power and unified their lands
the Magna Carta the "great charter", an agreement between King John of England and his nobles and clergy in which the king's power over his nobles was limited
Parliament a council that advised the English king or queen in government matters; today, a group of elected officials who make up the legislative branch of the British government
King John king of England who was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 under threat of civil war
King Henry IV king of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire; argued with Pope Gregory VII and was banned from the church
Pope Gregory VII Pope who reigned from 1073-1085, considered one of the greatest papal reformers of the Middle Ages
Joan of Arc peasant girl who led the French army to victory over the English in the Hundred Years' War
Runnymede a meadow along the Thames River in England
Orleans a city in north-central France; the site of the Hundred Years' War and the defeat of the English by the French under the leadership of Joan of Arc
Created by: Ms.Pendleton