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Module 2c - A&P

Introduction to the Human Body

epidermis thin outer layer of the skincomposed of stratified squamous epithelium
no blood supply of its own,oxygen and nutrients diffuse into lower epidermis from the rich supply of blood in the underlying dermis
divied into five layers, two if them are stratum germinativum and stratum corneum
stratum germinativum is on top of the dermis and has access to a rich supply of blood
cells of this layer are continuously dividing, producing millions of cells per day, as the cells divide they push the older cells up toward the surface of the epidermis
as the cells move away from the dermis two changes take place, fit rsthey move from their source of nourishment and begin to die
second the cells undergo a process of keratinization
keratin tough protein is deposited in the cell, it hardens and flattens the cells as they move
toward the outer suface, it makes the skin water resistant
stratum corneum surface later of the skin, composed of 30 layers of dead, flattened keratinized cells
dead cells are continously sloughed off (exfoliated or desquamated) through wear and tear, called dander, every month new layer of epithelium
dandruff dander clumped together by the oil on the skull
insensible perspiration 500ml/day of water is lost through the skin
sensible perspiration due to activity of the glands
hypovolemic shock shock due to low volume
dermis located under the epidermiscomposed of dense fibrous connective tissue
contains numerous colagen and elastin fibers that are surrounded by gel-like substance
striae stretch marks
accessory structures hair, nails and certain glands are embedded with dermis
dermis has blood vessels, nervous tissue, and some muscle tissuemany of the of the nervous tissue has sensory receptors that detect pain, temperature, pressure and touch
herpes zoster (shingles) imflammation of nerves caused by the chickenpox virus, develop painful skin lesions along the path of nerve
scalded skin syndrome staphylococcal infection in which the skin appears scaled and peels off in layers
subcutaneous layer dermis lies on the subcutaneous layernot considered a part of the skin
subcutaneous layer or hypodermiscomposed primarily of loose connective and adipose tissue
performs two main roles: helps insulate the body from extreme temperature changesit anchors the skin to underlying structures
subcutaneoulsy SC - drugs can be injected because the hypodermis has a rich supply of blood vessels
transdermally across the skin
systemic effect within the body
Created by: janmaire



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