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Euro History Final

Flash Cards for European History final

Motte and Bailey Castle Quick to build,Keep on a hill, very easy to destroy (fire)
Stone and Earth Castle Stronger than Motte and Bailey but costly, time consuming, and corner stone weakness
Concentric Castles Very strong and concentric design makes it hard to penetrate
Lords Top of Fuedal Pyramid
Vassals Below Lords on Fuedal Pyramid
Knights One step below Vassals
Serfs and Peasants Bottom of Fuedal Pyramid/ Laborers
Growth of Towns(caused by) Farming Improvements which lead to a surplus of food which allowed people to move to towns
Crusades A series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by christians from 1095-1291
Goal of the Crusades to recaptur the holy land from Muslim rule.
1st Crusade 1096-1099 Success
2nd Crusade 1144 Utter Failure
3rd Crusade 1189 Ultimately unsuccessful
4th Crusade 1202 success
5th Crusade 1217 failed
6th Crusade 1228 success
7th and 8th Crusades Both complete disasters
9th Crusade Failed
Black Plague early 1330s an outbreak of deadly bubonic plague occured in china and moved through Europe
What helped spread the Black Plague? Large Population, Over Faming causing rats to move to cities, cooler climate, poor hygiene, overcrowded cities, and little medical knowledge
Black Plague caused by Yersina Pestis
Affects 25 million deaths(1/3 of Europe), labor shortages, fall of the fuedal system, church lost power, conflicts between nobles and peasants over labor and taxes, limited food productivity
King John 1st king to give some of his power, ruled England from 1199 to 1216. He quarled with the pope who banned church from england, went to war twice against french, raised taxes
Magna Carta Great Charter, King John voluntarily gave up power. Helped barons not peasants
Simony Buying and Selling of churches
Excommunication kicked out of church
Canon Law Law of Church
Tithe 10% of yearly income to chruch
Interdict Take away power to perform church ceremonies(pope ability)
Role of the Church from 500-1000CE Church leaders corrupt-Italian nobles control pope. Major Problems, Marriage of priests,simony,lay investiture,indulgences
Rise of royal government in Europe France and England began to unify and strenghten as countries while Germany failed to unite
Renaissance Rebirth of Art after middle ages. Classical art, medieval art, realism, classicism, humanism
Classicism Reference to acient Greek and Roman myths, architecture, and style
Realism Make subject appear Realisic using perspective, light/shadow, knowledge of anatomy and nature
Humanism Focus on the individual and individual emotions
Protestant Reformation 1517-1564 ,a movement to reform the Catholic Church
Problems with the church popes did not focus on spiritual duties and many priests an monks were barely literate
Indulgences pardons from the church
Johann Tetzel a friar who sold letters of indulgence and gave the impression that one could buy their way into heaven
Martin Luther Didnt like tetzel, wrote 95 theses, salvation by faith alone, bible is only authority for chrisitan life, the priesthood of all believers
Pope Leo X issued a bull threatening Luters excommunication unless recanted his ideas, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
The edict of worms Charles V issued the edict of worms, declaring luther an outlaw and a heretic
Lutherans people who followed luthers ideas
Protestants refers to christians who turned away from the church
John Calvin Predestination, Calvanism, set up theocracy in Geneva, fled to switzerland when fellow Protestants arrested by King Francis
Created by: KevinRogers