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ch. 15 med term

musculoskeletal system

acetabulum rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone), forming the hip joint
acromion outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder
bone dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton
bone depression opening or hollow region serving as a connection for bones, or passageways for blood vessels and nerves
bone process enlarged area that extends from bones as an attachment for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
calcium one of the mineral constituents of bone
cancellous bone spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of the bone
cartilage flexible, connective tissue; found in the immature skeleton at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces (articular cartilage)
collagen dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues
compact bone hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones
cranial bones skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal
diaphysis shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
disk (disc) flat, round, plate-like structure
epiphyseal plate cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
epiphysis each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate
facial bones bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic
fontanelle soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant
foramen magnum opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
haversian canals minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone
ligament fibrous connective tissue that binds bones to other bones
malleolus round process on both sides of the ankle joint
manubrium upper portion of the sternum; joins with the clavicle to form the sternoclavicular joint
mastoid process rounded projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
medullary cavity central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
metaphysis flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta- means between)
olecranon large process on the proximal end of the ulna at the elbow
orthopedist medical doctor who specializes in bone, joint, and muscle conditions
osseous tissue bone tissue
ossification process of bone formation
osteoblast bone cell that helps form bony tissue
osteoclast bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue
periosteum membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue
phosphorus mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium
physiatrist medical doctor specializing in rehabilitation (physi/o means function)
pubic symphysis area of confluence (coming together of the two pubic bones in the pelvis
red bone marrow found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoeisis
ribs twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall
sella turica depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
sinus hollow air cavity within a bone
styloid process pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull
suture immovable joint between bones, such as the skull (cranium)
temporomandibular joint connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw
tendon fibrous connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
trabeculae supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone
vertebra individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina enclosing the neural canal and spinal cord
xiphoid process lower, narrow portion of the sternum
yellow bone marrow fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
abduction movement away from the midline of the body
adduction movement toward the midline of the body
dorsiflexion upward movement of the foot; achieved through ankle motion
extension straightening of a flexed limb; increasing the angle between the bones of a joint
fascia fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
flexion bending a limb; decreasing the angle between bones
insertion of a muscle connection of the muscle to a bone that moves; usually distal on the skeleton
origin of a muscle connection of the muscle to a stationary bone; usually proximal on the skeleton
plantar flexion downward movement of the foot; achieved through ankle motion
pronation turning the palm downward
rotation circular movement around a central point
striated muscle muscle connected to bones; voluntary or skeletal muscle
supination turning the palm upward
visceral muscle muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
fasci/o fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
fibr/o fibrous
leiomy/o smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
my/o muscle
myocardium heart muscle
myos/o muscle
plant/o sole of the foot
rhabdomy/o skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
sarc/o muscle and flesh
-asthenia lack of strength
-trophy development, nourishment
ab- away from
ad- toward
dorsi- back
poly- many, much
Created by: izayli
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