Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Neuro Emergencies


Monro-Kellie Doctrine: Total intracranial volume is fixed
Epidural hematoma temporal/temporoparietal; btw skull & dura; usu younger pts (not elder or <2 yo); 80% meningeal art inj; parenchyma compressed to midline; lens shape on CT
Trauma-induced alteration in mental status that may or may not involve a loss of consciousness = Concussion
Concussion Grade I No LOC, transient confusion
Concussion Grade II No LOC, transient confusion; sx last longer (>15 min)
Concussion Grade III LOC of any duration
Layers of SCALP: skin, connective tx, aponeurosis, loose areolar tx, pericranium
EDH s/s lucid interval in 30%; late: ipsilateral fixed/dilated pupil, contra hemiparesis
CPP = MAP - ICP (cerebral perfusion P = mean art P - intracranial P)
SDH = venous blood btw dura & arachnoid; bridging v.; often 2/2 accel/decel, in EtOH/elderly
SDH acute vs chronic acute usu s/s in 24 hr; chronic >2 wks
On CT: concave density adjacent to skull, crosses suture lines = SDH
On CT: biconvex density adj to skull, does not cross suture lines = EDH
Cushing triad HTN, bradycardia, resp irregularity; 2/2 markedly elevated ICP
brain ischemia results from CPP less than: 40 mm Hg
GCS ≥ 13 = mild brain injury
GCS 9-12 = moderate brain injury
GCS ≤ 8 = severe brain injury
GCS eye 1 = no response
GCS eye 2 = to painful stimuli
GCS eye 3 = to verbal command
GCS eye 4 = spontaneously
GCS verbal response 1 = no response
GCS verbal response 2 = incomprehensible sounds
GCS verbal response 3 = inappropriate words
GCS verbal response 4 = confused conversation
GCS verbal response 5 = oriented
GCS motor 1 = no response
GCS motor 2 = decerebrate posturing (arms & legs held straight out, toes pointed downward, & head & neck arched backwards)
GCS motor 3 = decorticate posturing (rigidity, flexion of arms, clenched fists, & extended legs (held out straight); arms are bent inward toward body w/wrists & fingers bent & held on chest)
GCS motor 4 = flexion withdrawal
GCS motor 5 = localizes pain
GCS motor 6 = obeys commands
Most sig cause of mortality in pts with TBI Diffuse axonal injury (DAI)
meningitis PE fever, HA, photophobia, seizure; petechiae/purpura (60-80% of Neisseria pts), poss AMS, +Kernig & Brudzinski
Hunt-Hess scale grades severity of: SAH (I = mild HA, stiff neck; V = coma)
SAH RFs HTN, smoking, cocaine, FH, prior SAH, PKD, CTD, coarctation
SAH tx control HTN (labetalol / nitroprusside); nimodipine for vasospasm; surg (resect / embolization)
s/p Fall w/ bilateral LE weakness, urinary and rectal incontinence, decreased rectal tone Cauda equina syndrome = neurosurgical consult
Pediatric with fever or Hx URI with encephalopathy, emesis, hyperactive reflexes, hepatomegaly, elevated liver enzymes Reye’s syndrome from URI/post-flu or aspirin use
Orbital blowout fx comminuted floor fx: herniated orbital contents; inf rectus mx entrap or vert diplopia d/t edema; blood in max sinus when orbital trauma
Loss of consciousness requires: Both cerebral hemispheres damaged OR brainstem lesion
Brown-Sequard lesion: findings Ipsilateral loss of position, motor, vibration. Contralateral loss of pain & temperature
Created by: Abarnard