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Bio 104 Chapt 7

Respiratory System

ducts formed from division of the respiratory bronchioles in the lower airway; each duct ends in clusters known as alveoli. alveolar ducts
small pits or cavities, such as the sockets for the teeth or air sacs in the lungs. alveoli
the very thin membrane, consisting of only one cell layer, that lies between the alveolus and capillary, through which respiratory exchange between the alveolus and the blood vessels occurs. alveolocapillary membrane
a disease of the lungs caused by inhalation of asbestos particles. asbestosis
a reversible restrictive lower airway disease. asthma
a disease of the lung caused by consistent inhalation of coal dust. black lung disease
arteries that branch off of the thoracic aorta and supply the lung tissues with blood. bronchial arteries
veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs. bronchial veins
fine subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveolar ducts. bronchioles
medication that is designed to improve lung function. bronchodilator
constriction of the airway passages of the lungs that accompanies muscle spasms. bronchospasm
the projection of the lowest portion of tracheal cartilage, at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra. carina
chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is associated with excess mucus production that results from overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airways. chronic bronchitis
a progressive and irreversible disease of the airway marked by decreased inspiratory and expiratory capacity of the lungs. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
three bony ridges contained within the lateral walls of the nasopharynx. conchae
movement of particles or solutes from an area of high concentration to low concentration diffusion
destruction of the walls of the alveoli, which creates resistance to expiratory airflow. emphysema
a thin plate of cartilage that closes over the glottic opening during swallowing. epiglottis
the tubular organ posterior to the trachea, connecting the pharynx to the stomach. esophagus
the external openings to the nasal cavity; also called the nostrils. external nares
the volume of air exhaled from the lung following a forceful exhalation. forced expiratory vital capacity (FEVI)
the opening into the lower airway made up of the true vocal cords and the opening between them. glottis
the floor of the nasal cavity. hard palate
the point of entry for the bronchi, vessels, and nerves into each lung. hilum
the posterior opening from the nasopharynx into the pharynx. interior nares
the opening of the lower airway, which consists of several cartilaginous structures held together by ligaments. larynx
a small portion of the left lung that is the equivalent of the middle lobe in the right lung. lingula
the two primary organs of breathing. lungs
the part of the lower airway below the larynx through which air enters the lungs. mainstem bronchi
a passage located below each turbinate. meatus
the separation between the right and left nostrils. nasal septum
the ducts that drain tears from the nasolacrimal ducts
the nasal cavity, which extends from the internal nares to the uvula. nasopharynx
the oral cavity, which extends from the uvula to the epiglottis. oropharynx
the pleural membrane that lines the pleural cavity. parietal pleura
a measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)
a measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood. partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)
the measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. pH
the cavity formed by the posterior connection of the oropharynx and nasopharynx. pharynx
serous membranes surrounding the lungs. pleura
the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura. pleural cavity
a potential space between the visceral and pleural space
decrease in the blood pH secondary to insufficient exhalation of CO2. primary respiratory acidosis
primary respiratory alkalosis -- increase in the blood pH secondary to excessive exhalation primary respiratory alkalosis
tests that assess volumes of air that move into and out of the lungs. pulmonary function tests
the volume of air remaining in the respiratory passages and lungs after a forceful expiration. residual volume
structures formed by the final branching of the bronchioles. respiratory bronchioles
the part of the brain located in the medulla oblongata that controls the respiratory stimulus. respiratory center
the organs and structures associated with breathing, gas exchange, and the entrance of air into the body. respiratory system
diseases such as black lung disease and asbestosis that result in stiffening of the lungs and significantly decreased vital capacity. restrictive lung disease
airway passages in the lungs that are formed from the division of the right and left mainstem bronchi. secondary bronchi
a device used in pulmonary function testing that measures air entering and leaving the lungs over a specific period of time. spirometer
airway passages in the lungs that are formed from branching of the secondary bronchi. tertiary bronchi
the volume of air inspired during normal inspiration. tidal volume
the structure made up of cartilage and other connective tissue that lies immediately inferior to the larynx and conveys air to the mainstem bronchi. trachea
the inferior portion of the vocal cords that vibrate to produce sound. true vocal cords
a set of bony convolutions formed by the conchae in the nasopharynx that help to maintain smooth airflow. turbinates
a small fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate. uvula
the process of moving air into and out of the lungs. ventilation
the superior portion of the vocal cords; also called the false vocal cords. vestibular folds
the pleural membrane that covers the lungs. visceral pleura
the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs with maximum inspiration and exhalation. vital capacity
Created by: fire107



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