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AP Seminar Final

Dante Alighieri Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
Botticelli One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Brunelleschi Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
Michelangelo Buonarroti Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. Sculpted the statue of David.
Castiglione Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Leonardo Da Vinci Artist who made sculptures and religious paintings like the Last Supper.
Lorenzo de Medici r(1469-1492) The Medici’s were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Miguel De Cervantes Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote
Pico Della Mirandola Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Donatello Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Erasmus Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Jacob Fugger Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
Giotto Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism
Hans Holbein the Younger German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
Humanism Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Individualism Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
Julius II r(1503-1513) Pope - very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter’s Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. Sponsored Michaelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.
Niccolo Machiavelli Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Montaigne The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay
Sir Thomas More Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs in 1535.
New Monarchs Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries. The people loved the idea of being the monarch and removed all competition. They were very Machiavellian. Included Henry VII and Henry VIII of England
Pazzi Conspiracy Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici’s. Failed, and Medici retribution was swift and very violent.
Quattrocento The 1400’s
Rabelais French satirical author.Gargantua and Pantagruel
Renaissance Man A man that is multitalented and is well educated. The example being Michaelangelo
Friar Girolamo Savonarola 1452-1498) Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
Secularism The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking
Lorenzo Valla On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Vernacular Everyday language of a specific nation
Virtu The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance
Edict of Nantes 1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
John Huss Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation
John Wycliffe Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope
Simony The selling of church offices
Usury The practice of lending money for interest.
Excommunication When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church
Johann Tetzel Hired by Archbishop Albert to sell Indulgences. Infuriated Luther
Diet of Worms Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Thomas Wolsey Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Pope Clement VII (r. 1523 thru 34) Pope during the Sack of Rome. Also refused to recognized Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, which led to the English Reformation.
Anglicanism Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
Predestination Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
The Institutes of Christian Religion Written by John Calvin
Thomas Cranmer Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer
Ignatius Loyola Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises
Jesuits Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola
Theocracy A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
Ulrich Zwingli (1484 thru 1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Defenestration of Prague (1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War
Peace of Westphalia Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe
Jean le Rond D’Alembert coeditor of the Encyclopedie.
Assignats Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Bastille Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Bougeoisie Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.
Revolutionary Calendar Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
Committee of Public Safety Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Conspiracy of Equals Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction,-communistic in nature.
Consulate Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
National Convention The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Danton Led the Mountains with Robespierre-also executed with Robespierre.
David Napoleon’s painter-painted the famous portrait of Napoleon’s coronation.
Declaration of the Rights of Man Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Directory Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
Encyclopedie Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment -explained many aspects of society.
Estates General Not called since 1614-finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister-demanded control over the King’s finances -he refused and dismissed them-sat as three segregated groups.
Gabelle Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate’s list of grievances.
Girondists One of the two halves of the divided National Convention. More moderate than the opposing Mountains, led by Robespierre, they represented the countryside.
Great Fear Followed the storming of the Bastille-people were scared of outlaws and reprisals-fanned flames of rebellion.
Guillotine Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.
Intendants Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems. Two main functions: enforce royal orders and weaken the power of the regionl nobility.
Levee en Masse Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Louis XVI King of France-executed for treason by the National Convention in 1793-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
Marie Antoinette Louis XVI’s wife and sister of Leopold of Austria - executed.
Robespierre A very radical Jacobin and member of the National Assembly-led the Mountains-began and led the Committee of Public Safety-began the Reign of Terror. He was executed in 1794 during the Thermidoean Reaction.
Sans-Culottes (without breeches) Petty laborers and laboring poor who were not part of the National Convention - wore pants, not knee breeches-became a major political group in revolutionary France.
Tennis Court Oaths Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.
First Estate Clergy. Less than 1% of the population
Second Estate Nobility. Roughly 2% of the population.
Third Estate Artisans etc. Everyone not in the First or Second Estate.
Thermidorean Reaction A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.
Ancien Regime The old order before the Revolution in France
Regicide The killing of the king
Versailles Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.
Mary Wollstonecraft English feminist author who wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
Berlin Decree 1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Joseph Bonaparte Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Confederation of the Rhine League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
The Grand Army Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.
Louis XVIII (1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties
Fyodor Dostoevsky Russian novelist.
Duma Popular parliament.
Fundamental Laws Issued by the Russian Government in 1906. The tsar retained great power. The Duma was elected by universal male suffrage. The Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power.
Alexander Kerensky Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
General Kornilov Wanted to be the savior of Russia. Tried to stage a coup-demanded the resignation of all ministers Kerensky ordered him to turn over command. But soldiers refused to follow him.
Kronstadt Revolt Rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base. Suppressed by the military. After the revolt Lenin introduced the N.E.P.
March Revolution Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia.
Mensheviks 'Minority group'.
Mir Peasant village assembly responsible to the government.
October Manifesto Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament-Duma.
"Peace, Bread, and Land" Lenin’s slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.
Continental System
Created by: Lucas_Campbell