Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Anatomy Tom Dick Har

For Anatomy test 2

QuestionAnswer
What forms the superomedial border of the popliteal fossa? semitendinosus and semimembranosus
What forms the inferomedial border of the popliteal fossa? medial head of the gastrocnemius
what forms the floor of the popliteal fossa? femur, oblique popliteal ligament, popliteus muscle
What forms the superolateral border of the popliteal fossa? biceps femoris
What forms the inferolateral border of the popliteal fossa? Lateral head of the gastrocnemius, plantaris
What important structures are located in the popliteal fossa? popliteal artery and vein, small saphenous vein, common peroneal and tibial nerves, posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh, popliteal lymph nodes
What ankle ligaments are on the lateral aspect of the ankle? anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, posterior talofibular
What are the medial ligaments of the ankle? tibiotalar, tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal
What ligament runs from the calcaneous to the cuboid and is important in maintaining the longitudinal arch? Long plantar ligament
What ligament runs from the calcaneus to the navicular and is important in maintaining the longitudinal arch and transferring the weight from the talus? plantar calcaneonavicular (spring ligament)
What ligament is located between the spring and long plantar ligaments and is important in maintaining the longitudinal arch? plantar calcaneocuboid (short plantar ligament)
What nerves innervate the muscles of the lower leg? tibial, sural(cutaneous), common (fibular)-->peroneal to the anterior leg, medial and lateral plantar nerves, calcaneal branch to the heel
What arteries supply the lower leg? popliteal, anterior tibial, posterior tibial, peroneal, medial/lateral plantar
What nerve innervates the plantar foot? tibial nerve
The tibial nerve divides into what two branches in the plantar foot? medial and lateral plantar
The medial plantar nerve innervates which muscles? flexor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis, flexor hallicus brevis, 1st lumbrical
The lateral plantar nerve innervates which muscles? quadratus plantae, abductor digiti minimi, 2,3,4 lumbricals, abductor hallucis, flexor digiti minimi brevis, plantar and dorsal interossei
The popliteal artery branches into which two arteries? posterior tibial and anterior tibial
The posterior tibial artery branches into which 3 arteries? peroneal, lateral and medial plantar
The anterior tibial artery eventually becomes what artery? dorsalis pedis
The Lateral plantar and dorsal pedis arteries form what? the plantar arterial arch
The great saphenous vein drains into what vein? femoral vein
The small saphenous vein drains into what vein? popliteal vein
Describe the venous drainage on the medial side of the foot? medial side into great saphenous-->into femoral
Describe the venous drainage on the lateral side of the foot? lateral side into small saphenous into popliteal
What type of fascia surrounds the entire lower leg? crural fascia
Describe the location of arteries, veins, and nerves superficial to deep in the lower leg. nerves, veins, arteries
What is the most superficial of the 3 main central components of the popliteal fossa? tibial nerve
How does the tibial nerve bisect the popliteal fossa? from the superior to the inferior angle
How does the tibial nerve branch in the lower leg? it branches to the soleus, gastrocs, plantaris, and popliteus muscles
What nerve does the tibial nerve give off? the medial sural cutaneous-->which joins the sural communicating branch off the common peroneal to form the sural nerve
what is considered the deepest, most anterior portion of the popliteal fossa? popliteal artery
What do the popliteal lymph nodes drain into? the deep inguinal nodes
What are the 3 different compartments of the lower leg? anterior (dorsiflexor), lateral (everter), posterior (plantarflexor)
What are the two thickenings of fascia in the anterior compartment called? superior extensor retinaculum, inferior extensor retinaculum
What is known as the largest compartment of the lower leg? the posterior compartment
These 3 compartments in the lower leg are formed by what? the anterior and posterior intermuscular septa and the interosseous membrane
What muscle in the posterior compartment crosses the knee? gastrocnemius
What muscle in the posterior compartment does not cross the knee? soleus
What muscle has a long tendon that attaches to the achilles tendon? plantaris
Where does the gastrocneumius originate? on the lateral and medial femoral condyles
Which muscles insert into the calcaneal tendon? gastroc, soleus, plantaris
Which muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve S1, S2? gastroc, soleus, plantaris
What are the actions of the gastroc? plantarfleses ankle when knee is extended, flexes knee, raises foot
What muscle plantarflexes the foot and stabilizes the leg on the foot? soleus
Where does the soleus originate? posterior and superior fibula, medial border of tibia, tendinous arch of soleus
What muscle assists with plantarflexion? plantaris
Where does the plantaris originate? on the supracondylar line of the femur
What two muscles originate on the interosseous membrane? tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus
Where else does the tibialis posterior originate besides the interosseous membrane? on the posterior surface of the tibai and fibula
Where does the tibialis posterior insert? occupies the medial malleolar groove and inserts into the tarsal bones the 2,3, and 4 metatarsal bones
What innervates the tibialis posterior? tibial nerve L4, L5
What muscles plantar flex the ankle and invert the foot? tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus
Where does the FDL originate? on the medial portion of the posterior surface of the tibia
Where does the FDL insert? on the 2-5 distal phalanges
What other action does the FDL have? it flexes the toes
What muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve S2, S3? FDL, EHL
where else does the FHL originate besides the interosseous membrane? lower 2/3 of the posterior fibular surface
Where does the FHL insert? runs along groove on the posterior talus body and on the inferior surface of the calcaneous (sustentaculum tali) to the distal phalanx of the great toe
What other action does the FHL have? it flexes the great toe
How many muscle layers are in the sole of the foot? 4
What muscles are located in layer 1 (most superficial) of the foot? abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi
What muscles are in layer 2 of the foot? quadratus plantae, lumbricals
what muscles are in layer 3 of the foot? flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, flexor digiti minimi brevis
What muscles are in layer 4 of the foot? plantar interossei, dorsal interossei
What are the movements of the ankle? supination (inversion), pronation (eversion), dorsiflexion, plantarflexion
What constitutes the lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle? anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, posterior talofibular
What constitutes the syndesmosis of the ankle? anterior inferior tibiofibular, posterior inferior tibiofibular, inferior transverse
What are the 2 parts of the deltoid ligament called? supeficial and deep
What ligaments are located in the deep layer of the deltoid ligament? anterior deep tibiotalar, posterior deep tibiotalar
what ligaments are located in the superficial layer of the deltoid ligament? tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, posterior tibiotalar
What are you looking for when performing the anterior drawer test on the ankle? subluxation of the talus out of the mortise joint
What percentage of ankle fx involve a supination/adduction mechanism? 10-20%
What is the associated pathology with a supination/adduction mechanism? transverse # of fibula/tear of collateral ligaments-->vertical # medial malleolus
What percentage of ankle fx involve a supination/eversion (external rotation) mechanism? 40-75%
What is the associated pathology with a supination/eversion mechanism? disruption of the anterior tibiofibular ligament, spiral oblique fx of the distal fibula, disruption of the posterior tibiofibular ligament or fx of the posterior malleolus, fx of the medial malleolus or rupture of the deltoid ligament
What percentage of ankle fx involve a pronation/abduction mechanism? 5-20%
What is the associated pathology with a pronation/abduction mechanism? transverse fx of the medial malleolus or rupture of the deltoid ligament, rupture of teh syndesmotic ligaments or avulsion fx of their insertions, short, horizontal, oblique fx of the fibula above the level of the joint
What percentage of ankle fx involve a pronation/eversion mechanism? 5-20%
What is the associated pathology with a pronation/eversion mechanism? transverse fx of the medial malleolus or disruption of the deltoid ligament, disruption of anterior tibiofibular ligament, short oblique fx of the fibula above the level of the joint, rupture of posterior tibiofibular ligament or avulsion fx of the tibia
What is the associated pathology with a pronation/dorsiflexion mechanism? fx of medial malleolus, fx of anterior margin of tibia, supramalleolar fx of fibula, transverse fx of the posterior tibial surface
What is the only type of ankle fx associated with medial displacement of the talus? supination-adduction mechanism
What are some complications of calcaneal fx? wound dehiscence, calcaneal osteomyelitis, post-traumatic arthritis, increase heel width--lateral impingement of peroneal tendon, loss of subtalar motion, peroneal tendonitis, sural nerve injury, chronic pain, reflex sympathetic dystrophy
Describe a type I talar fx nondisplaced
Describe a type II talar fx associated subtalar subluxation or dislocation
Describe a type III talar fx associated subtalar and ankle dislocation
Describe a type IV talar fx type III with associated talonavicular subluxation or dislocation
What is the mechanism of action behind the snowboarders talus dorsiflexion and inversion
What are some complications of talar fxs? infection, osteonecrosis, delayed union or nonunion, malunion, interposition of long flexor tendons, foot compartment syndrome
where is chopart's joint located? between the calcaneous and the cuboid bone and the talus and navicular bone
Describe the mechanism of injury for a medial stress injury in the midtarsal joint? adduction of midfoot on hindfoot
describe the associated pathology with a medial stress injury avulsion fxs commonly seen, in more severe cases, joint may be dislocated (talonavicular), subtalar joint is subluxed and the calcaneocuboid joint is intact
describe the mechanism of injury for a longitudinal stress injury of the midtarsal joint longitudinal forces through metatarsals produce vertical navicular fxs
describe the mechanism of injury for a lateral stress injury of the midtarsal joint forefoot is driven laterally causing a nutcracker fx, crushing the cuboid between teh calcaneous and 4/5 metatarsal bases
Describe the lisfranc joint line the anatomic boundary between the rigid midfoot and the suppler weightbearing forefoot
What is the MOI for a Lisfranc injury? severe twisting, axial loading or crushing mechanisms
What are the complications of a lisfranc injury? post-traumatic arthritis, compartment syndrome, infection, RSD, neurovascular injury, hardware failure
What is a Jones fx? a fx of the base of the 5th metatarsal
What tendon attaches to the base of the 5th MT? peroneus brevis
What is the MOI of a jones fx? direct trauma or rotational force
What is the innervation discussed in the posterior thigh region? tibial division of sciatic, common peroneal division of sciatic, posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh, tibial, common peroneal
In what compartment are the sciatic nerve and perforating blood vessels found? posterior compartment
Each compartment is formed by what? 3 fascial intermuscular septae
What is found in the anterior compartment of the leg? extensor compartment, femoral nerve
What is found in the medial compartment of the leg? adductor compartment, obturator nerve
What is found in the posterior compartment of the leg? flexor compartment, tibial and common peroneal divisions of the sciatic nerve
What muscles are found in the posterior compartment of the thigh? biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
What muscles are located in the medial compartment of the thigh? adductor magnus, adductor brevis, gracilis, adductor longus
What muscles are located in the lateral compartment of the thigh? gluteus maximus, fascia lata
What muscles are located in the anterior compartment of the thigh? vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, sartorius
What forms the superior border of the femoral triangle? inguinal ligament
What forms the medial border of the femoral triangle? adductor longus
What forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle? sartorius
What forms the floor of the femoral triangle? pectineus
What are the contents--from lateral to medial--of the femoral triangle? femoral nerve, femoral artery, femoral vein, empty space, lymphatics
The adductor canal does what? It allows passage of the femoral vessels and the saphenous nerve through the middle one-third of the thigh.
where are the quadriceps femoris muscles in relationship to the adductor muscles? they are separated by a deep groove
What forms the roof of the adductor canal? sartorius
Where does the adductor canal end? the adductor hiatus
Anatomically, what is the adductor hiatus? a split in the adductor magnus muscle
What arteries supply the anterior compartment of the thigh? femoral and deep femoral
What arteries supply the medial compartment of the thigh? obturator and deep femoral
What arteries supply the knee? popliteal, anterior tibial, peroneal, posterior tibial
What innervates the anterior thigh? femoral nerve (L2-L4)
What innervates the medial thigh? obturator nerve (L2-L4)
What muscles are located in the anterior thigh? pectineus, iliopsoas, sartorius, quadriceps femoris, articularis genu
What muscles are located in the medial thigh? pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis, obturator externus
What is the action of the iliopsoas muscle? it flexes the hip joint
What muscles cross the hip joint? rectus femoris, adductor muscles
What is fxn unique to the rectus femoris? it acts as a hip flexor
Describe where the quadriceps femoris originates. 1 head arises from the AIIS and 3 heads arise from the femur
What do the adductor muscles do? bring legs together
What muscle is known as the transitional muscle between the anterior and medial compartments? pectineus
Where does the pectinus originate? on the superior ramus of the pubic bone
Where does the pectineus insert? on the upper medial shaft of the femur
What muscles are innervated by the femoral nerve L2-L4? pectineus, iliopsoas, sartorius, quadriceps femoris
What muscles adduct the thigh? adductor longus, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus
What muscle flexes the thigh? pectineus
What muscle is the chief flexor of the thigh and the most powerful of the hip flexors? iliopsoas
Where does the iliopsaos originate? T12-L5, superior 2/3 of the iliac fossa
Where does the iliopsoas insert? on the lesser trochanter of the femur
What other nerve (besides the femoral) innervates the iliopsoas? ventral rami L1-L4
What muscles flex the hip? iliopsoas, sartorius, rectus femoris
Where does the sartorius originate? ASIS
What two muscles insert on the upper part, and medial surface of the tibia, aka the pes anserine area? sartorius and gracilis
What muscles flex the knee? sartorius, gracilis,
Where does the rectus femoris originate? AIIS
Where does the vastus group originate? on the upper half of the shaft of the femur
Where do the quadriceps insert? on the quad tendon via the patella via the patellar tendon and medial and lateral patellar retinacula
What muscles extend the knee? rectus femoris, vastus group
What muscles insert on the anterior part of the pubic bone? adductor longus, adductor brevis
What muscle inserts on the middle part of the femur? adductor longus
What muscles insert on the linea aspera of the femur? adductor longus,adductor brevis, adductor magnus
What muscles are innervated by the obturator nerve L2-L4? adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis, obturator externus
What muscle divides the anterior and posterior branches of the obturator nerve? adductor brevis
What muscle inserts on the proximal part of the femur? adductor brevis
What muscles originate on the inferior pubic ramus? adductor magnus, gracilis
What muscle also originates on the ischial ramus and tuberosity? adductor magnus
Where else does the adductor magnus insert? into the adductor tubercle of the femur
What muscle is the largest, most powerful, most posterior of adductors? adductor magnus
What else innervates the adductor magnus? the tibial portion of the sciatic nerve supplies the hamstring portion
What muscle extends the thigh? adductor magnus
What muscle adducts the hip? gracilis
What is special about the gracilis? It is the most medial muscle of the thigh
What muscle passes direclty under the acetabulum and the neck of the femur? obturator externus
What muscle originates on the external surface of the obturator foramen and membrane? obturator externus
Where does the obturator externus insert? into the trochanteric fossa of the femur
What is the main action of the obturator externus? external rotation of thigh
When a person performs a straight leg raise, what is the force muliplier? 1.5 body weight
When a person stands on one-leg, what is the force multiplier? 2.5 body weight
When a person stands on both feet, what is the force multiplier? 0.5 body weight
When a person runs, what is the force multiplier? 5.0 body weight
What vessel supplies the majority of the femoral head? medial femoral circumflex artery
What artery supplies a small contribution to the femoral head? artery of ligamentum teres
What is a consequence of the femoral neck having minimal periosteum? any callus that forms must do so by endosteal proliferation-->making it prone to avascular necrosis
What are some symptoms of nonunion in femoral neck fxs? groin/buttock pain, pain on hip extension, painful weightbearing for at least 12 months
What fxs are 50% of all fxs of the proximal femur? intertrochanteric fxs
Describe the anatomy of the intertrochanteric area? extracapsular, good cancellous bone, abundant blood supply
What can result in a deformity of the intertrochanteric area? shortening, external rotation, varus position
How do the abductors connect to the intertrochanteric area? they connect to the greater trochanter laterally and proximally
How does the illiopsoas connect to the intertrochanteric area? it connects to the lesser trochanter medially and proximally
What can happen with an intertrochanteric fracture? flexors, extensors, and adductors pull distal fragment proximally, can be non-displaced or displaced
What is the usual MOI for an intertrochanteric fx? MVA, fall from a height in the young, a simple fall in the old, direct impact on greater trochanter
If an intertrochanteric fx is displaced, what are the likely radiographic findings? it is shortened and externally rotated
What are some complications of intertrochanteric fxs? loss of fixation, nonunion, malrotation deformity, laceration of the femoral artery by a displaced lesser trochanteric fragment, iatrogenic fx
Describe the anatomy of the subtrochanteric area. it consists mainly of cortical bone, less vascularity, diminished potential for healing
What is the MOI for subtrochanteric fxs? similar to other hip fxs, common site of pathological fxs
What defines a femoral shaft fx? a fx of the femoral diaphysis occurring between 5 cm distal to the lesser trochanter and 5 cm proximal to the adductor tubercle
Describe the anatomy of the femoral shaft area. good periosteal blood supply, vascular supply to shaft derived from deep femoral artery, large size of compartments make compartment syndrome less common than in leg
What is the MOI for a femoral shaft fx? high energy activities (young men), low energy activities (elderly women)
What is seen in 50% of femoral shaft fx patients? ligament and meniscal damage to the ipsilateral knee
How are femoral shaft fxs classified? open vs. closed, location, pattern, comminuted, segmental or butterfly fragment, angulation or rotational deformity, displacement
What are some complications of a femoral shaft fx? nerve injury, vascular injury to femoral artery tethered at adductor hiatus, compartment syndrome, infection, refracture, nonunion, malunion, fixation device failure, heterotrophic ossificstion
What is meant by heterotrophic ossification? the process by which bone tissue forms outside of the skeleton
If hip fxs are excluded, ________of femur fractures involve what part? One third of femur fxs involve the distal portion
The distal femur inovles what two regions. the supracondylar, condylar
What is teh MOI for a distal femur fx? severe axial lad with varus, valgus or rotation
What are some complicatiosn for a distal femur fx? posttraumatic osteoarthritis, loss of knee motion, failure of fixation, nonunion, malunion, infection, etc.
In tibial plateau (proximal tibia) fxs, what can happen? the popliteal trifurcation is tethered posteriorly and the peroneal nerve is tethered laterally around the fibular neck, compartment syndrome
What are the most common long bone fxs? tibial and fibular shaft fxs
What vessels supply the tibial and fibular shaft? nutrient artery and periosteal vessels
What is a tibial plafond fx? A combination of ankle fx and distal tibial metaphyseal fx, usually with intraarticular comminution
What important structures are located in the anterior compartment of the leg? anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis artery, deep peroneal nerve
What important structures are located in the lateral compartment? superficial peroneal nerve, no arteries run through this
What is the fxn of the genicular anastomosis in the knee? it can help supply blood to the leg in the event of an obstruction of the femoral artery below the branching--->off of the deep femoral artery
The popliteal artery gives rise to what two arteries? post. and anterior tibial
The posterior tibial artery gives rise to what 3 arteries? peroneal, lateral planar, medial planar
The anterior tibial artery gives rise to what artery? dorsalis pedis
The lateral plantar, medial plantar, and dorsalis pedis arteries all contribute to what? plantar arterial arch
What is the primary action of the muscles of the anterior leg? dorsiflexion of the ankle and extension of the phalanges
What are the distal attachments of the muscles of the anterior leg? tarsal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones and joints
The muscles of the anterior compartment of the anterior leg are responsible for what motions? dorsiflexion of the ankle and toe extension
What muscles make up the anterior compartment of the anterior leg? tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and brevis, extensor hallucis longus and brevis, peroneus tertius (although seen in the lateral aspect of the lower leg)
The muscles of the lateral compartment of the anterior leg are responsible for what motion? eversion of the ankle
What are the muscles of the lateral compartment? peroneus longus and brevis
How do the tendons run? They pass under several different retinaculum above and below ankle.
Where does the tibialis anterior originate? on the upper, lateral, and anterior tibia
What muscles insert on the medial cuneiform and the base of the 1st metatarsal? tibialis anterior, peroneus longus
What muscles are innervated by the deep peroneal nerve? tibialis anterior, Extensor Digitorum Longus and Brevis, Extensor Hallucis Longus, Extensor Hallucis Brevis, peroneus tertius
What muscles dorsiflex the foot? tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, peroneus tertius
What muscles invert the foot? tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus,
What muscles originate on the anterior fibula? extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus
What muscles originate on the interosseus membrane? extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, peroneus tertius
What origin is unique to the extensor digitorum longus? lateral tibial condyle
What muscles originate on the dorsal calcaneus? extensor digitorum brevis, extensor hallucis brevis
Where does the extensor digitorum longus insert? mid/distal phalanges of the lesser toes
Where does the extensor digitorum brevis insert? proximal phalanges of the lesser toes
What muscles extend the toes? EDL and EDB
What muscles dorsiflex the ankle? EDL and EDB
What muscles evert the foot? EDL, EDB, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis,
Where does the extensor hallucis longus insert? on the distal phalanx of the great toe
What muscles extend the great toe? extensor hallucis longus, extensor hallucis brevis,
Where does the extensor hallucis brevis insert? at the base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe
Where else does the peroneus tertius originate besides the interosseous membrane? lower anterior fibula
Where does the peroneus tertius insert? the dorsum of the base of the 5th MT
Where does the peroneus longus originate? on the head and upper 2/3 lateral side of the fibula
What muscles are weak plantarflexors of the ankle? peroneus longus, peroneus brevis
What nerve innervates the peroneus longus and brevis? superficial peroneal
Where does the peroneus brevis originate? the lower 2/3 lateral side of the fibula
Where does the peroneus brevis insert? on the dorsum lateral side of the base of 5th MT
What are teh exta and intra articular ligaments of the knee? MCL, LCL, ACL, PCL
What is the role of the meniscus? it absorbs impact and helps with stability
What about the vascularity of the meniscus? it is avascular and heals slowly if at all
What ligaments are tight in flexion and extension, relaxed at 30 degrees of flexion and prevents anterior and posterior displacement of the tibia? cruciates
What ligaments are tight in extension, relaxed in flexion, and prevents abduction/adduction of the knee? collaterals
Which ligament of the knee is most often injured? the MCL is weaker than the ACL and PCL and is most easily injured.
What is the terrible triad? MCL, ACL, and the lateral and medial menisci are damaged when lateral trauma is applied to the knee while the foot is fixed to the ground
How do you assess the integrity of the MCL? apply valgus stress to the knee
How do you assess the integrity of the LCL? apply varus stress to the knee
What tests assess the integrity of the ACL? anterior drawer, Lachman's
What tests assess the integrity of the PCL? Posterior drawer, sag test
What is compartment syndrome? an elevation of interstitial pressure in closed fascial compartment that results in microvascular compromise
What does the superficial fascia do? it is the subcutaneous tissue of the neck that envelops the platysma muscle
What are the 3 layers of deep cervical fascia? superficial (investing), pretracheal, prevertebral
What does the superficial (investing) layer do? it surrounds the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the strap muscles, and the trapezius
Where is the pretracheal fasica located? it lies anterior to the trachea and midline structures
What is the fxn of the prevertebral fascia? It encloses the vertebral column and its associated muscles.
What does the deep cervical fascia do collectively as a unit? it condenses around the carotid sheath, enclosing the common carotid arteries, internal jugular veins, and vagus nerves
Where are the lymphatics found? within the superficial and deep fascia in order to contain disease process until it is eroded
What triangles make up the anterior triangle of the neck? submandibular triangle, submental triangle, carotid triangle, muscular triangle
What triangles make up the posterior triangle of the neck? occipital triangle, supraclavicular triangle
What is the significance of the sternocleidomastoid muscle? it defines the borders between the anterior and posterior triangles.
What marks the anterior border of the anterior triangle? the anterior midline of the neck
What marks the posterior border of the anterior triangle? the anterior border of the SCM
What marks the superior border of the anterior triangle? the inferior border of the mandible
What marks the roof of the anterior triangle? the platysma and investing fascia
What marks the anterior border of the posterior triangle? the posterior border of the SCM muscle
What marks the posterior border of the posterior triangle? anterior border of the trapezius
What marks the inferior border of the posterior triangle? the superior border of the clavicle
What marks the floor of the posterior triangle? the splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenes
What marks the roof of the posterior triangle? the platysma and investing fascia
In the posterior triangle, what structures are located superficial to the SCM? external jugular vein, superficial cervical nodes, lesser occipital nerve, great auricular nerve, transverse cervical nerve, supraclavicular nerves, spinal accessory nerve
In the posterior triangle, what structures are located deep to the SCM? spinal accessory nerve (a continuation of), brachial plexus, transverse cervical artery, suprascapular artery
What nerve roots make up the cervical plexus? C1-C5
What nerve roots make up the brachial plexus? C5-T1
In the cervical and brachial region, the common carotid artery gives rise to what artery? vertebral
The vertebral artery gives rise to what artery? Thyrocervical trunk
The thyrocervical trunk gives rise to what artery? internal thoracic
The internal thoracic artery gives rise to what artery? subclavian
The subclavian artery gives rise to what artery? axillary
What arteries come off the 1st branch of the axillary artery? superior thoracic
What arteries come off the 2nd branch of the axillary artery? thoracoacromial, lateral thoracic
What arteries come off the 3rd part of the axillary artery? subscapular, anterior circumflex humeral, posterior circumflex humeral
Name the branches of the thyrocervical trunk. inferior thyroid, ascending cervical, transverse cervical, suprascapular
Where does the playsma originate? on the subcutaneous fascia over the upper chest
Where does the platysma insert? on the subcutaneous fascia of the chin and jaw, on the inferior border of the mandible
What nerve innervates the platysma? facial nerve
What are the actions of the platysma? lowers the corner of mouth, draws skin of chest upwards
What important structure travels over the anterior scalene? phrenic nerve (C3-C5)
What important structure travels behind the anterior scalene? brachial plexus
Where do the scalenes originate? on the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
Where do the scalenes insert? anterior scalene and middle scalene: 1st ribposterior scalene: 2nd rib
What is the action of the scalene muscles? primarily muscles of inspiration
What is the clinical significance of tight scalenes? the subclavian artery and brachial plexus are located in this area, potentially leading to thoracic outlet syndrome
What muscles make up the anterior neck? suprahyoid group, infrahyoid group
What muscles are part of the suprahyoid group? digastric, stylohyoid, geniohyoid, mylohyoid
What muscles are part of the infrahyoid group? sternohyoid, omohyoid, strenohyoid, thyrohyoid
What are colletively the actions of the muscles in the anterior cervical region? they steady or move the hyoid and larynx
Where does the omohyoid originate? near the suprascapular notch of the scapula
Where does the omyohyoid insert? on the hyoid bone
What nerve innervates the omohyoid? C1-C3 by the ansa cervicalis
What are the actions of the omohyoid muscle? depresses, retracts, steadies hyoid
What are the deep muscles of the anterior neck? longus colli, longus capitis, rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis
Where are the deep muscles of the anterior neck located? they lie against the anterior aspect of vertebrae
What are the fxns of the deep muscles of the anterior neck? they stabilize the head and restore to neutral from neck extension
What muscles make up the anterior thorax? subclavius, pectoralis major and minor
what is the specific location of the subclavius? it extends from the 1st rib to the clavicle
What does the pectoralis major do? it is involved in horizontal adduction of the humerus
What is the specific location of the pectoralis minor? it extends from the ribs to the coracoid process (stabilizes scapula)
Where does the subclavius originate? at the jxn of the 1st rib and costal cartilage
Where does the subclavius insert? on the inferior surface of the mid 1/3 of the clavicle
What innervates the subclavius? the nerve to the subclavius
What are the actions of the subclavius? anchors and depresses the clavicle
Where does the pectoralis major originate? clavicular head: medial 1/2 or 2/3 of claviclesternocostal head: sternum and adjacent 6 costal cartilages
Where does the pectoralis major insert? upper shaft of the humerus
What innervates the pectoralis major? upper fibers: lateral pectoral nervelower fibers: lateral and medial pectoral nerves
What are the actions of the pectoralis major? adducts and internally rotates humerus, flexes and internally rotates shoulder joint, horizontally adducts the humerus, the main climbing muscle
Where does the pectoralis minor originate? 3rd-5th ribs near the costal cartilages
where does the pectoralis minor insert? on the coracoid process of the scapula
What innervates the pectoralis minor? medial pectoral nerve
What are the actions of the pectoralis minor muscle? stabilizes scapula by bringing it anteriorly and inferiorly against the thoracic wall
Where are the brachial plexus and axillary artery located in relationship to the pectoralis minor? they are located beneath it
What is the clinical significance of a tight pectoralis minor muscle? tight pec. minor compresses neurovascular, causes restriction of chest expansion
What are the roots of the brachial plexus formed by? anterior (rami) of C5-T1
Where do the root of the brachial plexus go? they pass between the anterior and middle scalene with the subclavian artery
What do these roots form? Trunks: Superior (C5-C6)Middle (C7)Inferior (C8)
Each trunk divides into what? anterior and posterior divisions
What do these divisions form? 3 cords: lateral, medial, posterior
What divisions form the lateral cord? anterior divisions from the superior and middle trunk
What divisions form the medial cord? the anterior divisions from the inferior trunk
What divisions form the posterior cord? the posterior divisions from all 3 trunks
What do these trunks form? branches
How are the cords of the brachial plexus named? by their anatomical relationship to the axillary artery
Describe the shape of the terminal branches of the medial and lateral cords. They make a sideways M
What nerve roots are involved in the supraclavicular branch of the brachial plexus? C5 and C6
What nerves come off the supraclavicular branch and arise from C5 only? dorsal scapular and suprascapular nerves
What nerves come off the supraclavicular branch and arise from C6 only? Nerve to the subclavius
What nerve comes off the supraclavicular branch and arise from both C5 and C6? long thoracic nerve
The dorsal scapular nerve innervates what muscles? Rhomboids, Levator scapulae
The long thoracic nerve innervates what muscle? serratus anterior
What nerve roots are involved in the infraclavicular branch of the brachial plexus? C5-T1
What nerves come off the infraclavicular branch and arise from both C5-C7? Lateral pectoral, musculocutaneous, medial pectoral, medial cutaneous nerve of arm, medial cutaneous nerve of forearm, median nerves
What nerves comes off the infraclavicular branch and arise from C5-T1? Median, radial nerve
What muscle does the lateral pectoral nerve innervate? pectoralis major
What muscles does the musculocutaneous nerve innervates? all of the muscles of the anterior arm except for the coracobrachialis, biceps, and the brachialis
What muscles does the median nerve innervate? all those in the anterior forearm except for the flexor carpi ulnaris, the ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus, 3 intrinsic thenar muscles, and the radial 2 lumbricals
What nerves come off the infraclavicular branch and arise from C8-T1? medial pectoral, medial cutaneous nerve of arm, medial cutaneous nerve of forearm, ulnar nerve
What muscles does the medial pectoral nerve innervate? pectoralis minor, the sternoclavicular part of the pectoralis major
What does the medial cutaneous nerve of the arm do? it innervates the skin of the medial arm
What does the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm do? it innervates the skin of the medial forearm
What muscles does the ulnar nerve innervate? flexor carpi ulnaris, ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus, most of the intrinsic hand muscles, skin of the hand
What brachial plexus root does the upper subscapular nerve arise? C5
What muscle does the upper subscapular nerve innervate? the superior portion of the subscapularis
What brachial plexus root does the lower subscapular nerve arise? C6
What muscles does the lower subscapular nerve innervate? the inferior portion of the subscapularis, teres major
What muscle does theh thoracodorsal nerve innervate? latissimus dorsi
What muscles does the axillary nerve innervate? deltoid, teres minor
What nerve roots does the thoracodorsal nerve arise from? C6-C8
What nerve roots does the axillary nerve arise from? C5-C6
What muscles does the radial nerve innervate? all posterior muscles of the arm and forearm, the skin of the posterior and inferolateral arm and forearm and the dorsum of the hand lateral to the axial line of the ring finger
Erb's palsy involves damage to what aspect of the brachial plexus? the superior trunk (aka waiter's tip)
Klumpke's paralysis involves damage to what aspect of the brachial plexus? the inferior trunk (aka claw hand)
Wrist drop involves damage to what aspect of the brachial plexus? radial nerve
A winged scapula involves damage to what aspect of the brachial plexus? long thoracic nerve
Deltoid paralysis involves damage to what aspect of the brachial plexus? axillary nerve
Saturday night palsy involves what type of damage? radial nerve compression
Ape hand involves damage to what brachial plexus structure? the median nerve (involves the thenar muscles)
Damage to the hand of benediction involves what nerve? the ulnar nerve (paralysis of intrinsic muscles of hand)
If a person has radial deviation of the wrist with wrist flexion, what structure could be damaged? the ulnar nerve above the elbow
The brachial artery is a continuation of what artery? axillary artery
Describe the path of the brachial artery. it begins at the inferior border of the Teres major and ends at the cubital fossa near the radial neck
What does the brachial artery divide into? radial and ulnar arteries
What are the braches of the brachial artery? deep artery of the arm, humeral nutrient artery (to the humeral shaft), superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries
The deep artery of the arm is accompanied by what nerve? the radial nerve
The deep artery of the arm divides into what? middle and radial collaterals
The superior ulnar collateral artery is accompanied by what nerve? ulnar nerve
The inferior ulnar collateral artery is located where? it is the last branch above the cubital space
What are some important superficial veins of the arm? cephalic in the forearm and in deltopectoral groove, median cubital, basilic
What are the four main nerves in the arm? median (forearm, wrist, hand), radial (innervates wrist extensors, can be damaged in a midshaft humeral fx), ulnar, musculocutaneous (to the anterior muscles)
What is unique about the median and ulnar nerves? there are no branches in the axilla or arm
How does the radial nerve descend? it descends inferolaterally with the deep brachial artery and passes around the humeral shaft in the radial groove
How does the radial nerve enter the arm? it enters the arm posterior to the brachial artery, medial to the humerus, and anterior to the long head of the triceps
How does the radial nerve continue inferiorly? it continues inferiorly in the anterior compartment of the arm between the brachialis and the brachioradialis
Where does the radial nerve divide into deep and superficial branches? anterior to the lateral epicondyle
The radial nerve is divided into what 2 branches? deep (entirely muscular) and superficial (entirely sensory)
What does the radial nerve supply? all of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm (and forearm)
Describe the course of the ulnar nerve. it passes posterior to the medial epicondyle and medial to the olecranon to enter the forearm
The ulnar nerve supplies what muscles? flexor carpi ulnaris, adductor pollicis, hypothenar muscles, flexor digitorum profundus (4/5), interosseii, lumbricals (4/5)
Describe the sensation distribution for the ulnar nerve. hand, ulna, to the median line of the 4th MCP joint
Describe the course of the musculocutaneous nerve. it begins opposite the inferior border of the pectoralis minor, pierces the coracobrachialis and continues distally between the biceps and the brachialis
The musculocutaneous nerve supplies what muscles? biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, brachialis, sensation to lateral forearm
What separates the anterior from the posterior muscles of the arm? the humerus and the medial and lateral intermuscular septae
What are the muscles of the arm? biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, brachialis, triceps brachii, anconeus
What muscles originate on the coracoid process? short head of the biceps brachii, coracobrachialis
Where does the long head of the biceps originate? on the supraglenoid tubercle
Where does the biceps brachii insert? on the radial tuberosity
What muscles are innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)? Biceps Brachii, coracobrachialis
What muscles flex the elbow? biceps brachii, brachialis
What muscle supinates the forearm? biceps brachii
Where does the coracobrachialis insert? on the medial aspect of the humerus at the mid-shaft
What does the coracobrachialis do? it helps flex and adduct the arm
Where does the anconeus originate? lateral epicondyle of humerus
Where does the anconeus insert? on the lateral olecranon and the superior part of the posterior surface of the ulna
What muscles are innervated by the radial nerve (C5-T1)? anconeus, triceps brachii
What muscles extend the elbow? anconeus, triceps brachii
Where does the brachialis originate? on the anterior lower humeral shaft
Where does the brachialis insert? on the coronoid process and the tuberosity of the ulna
What innervates the brachialis? musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6)
Where does the triceps originate? long head: infraglenoid tuberclelateral head: upper half, posterior humeral shaftmedial head: lower half, posterior humeral shaft
Where does the triceps insert? olecranon process
What forms the superior border of the cubital fossa? line between the lateral and medial epicondyles
What forms the lateral border of the cubital fossa? the brachioradialis
What forms the medial border of the cubital fossa? the pronator teres muscle
What important structures are located in the cubital fossa? brachial artery, deep accompanying veins, median nerve, radial nerve, median cubital vein
What nerve is responsible for the biceps reflex? the musculocutaneous (C5-C6)
What can biceps tendonitis be a precursor for and why? a rotator cuff tear, because of the tendon's location in the bicipital groove
What symptoms would a patient have if the tendon of the long head of the biceps was dislocated? popping or catching with rotation, positive Yergason's test
A rupture of the long head of the biceps frequently happens in what location? proximally, may be treated conservatively
If a rupture of the long head of the biceps happens distally, what should be done? surgery
How can the musculocutaneous nerve become injured? in the axilla
If the musculocutaneous nerve is injured, what muscles might be paralyzed? biceps, coracobrachialis, brachialis
Where might there be loss of sensation if the musculocutaneous nerve is injured? in the area supplied by the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve
If there is injury to the radial nerve superior to the branch of the triceps, paralysis of what muscles will result? triceps, brachioradialis, supinator, extensor muscles of wrist and fingers
If there is injury to the radial nerve in the radial groove, what symptoms might a patient present with? wrist drop
What are the major ligaments of the elbow joint? radial collateral, ulnar collateral, annular
The anterior compartment of the forearm is involved in what motions? first of all, it is referred to as anteromedial and contains the flexor and pronator muscles
The posterior compartment of the forearm is involved in what motions? First of all, it is referred to as posterolateral and contains the extensor and supinator muscles
The anterior compartment is separated from the extensor muscles by what? the radius and ulna and interosseous membrane
What holds the flexor pronator muscles in place at the wrist? by flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament)
What holds the extensor and supinator muscles in place? The extensor retinaculum
What are the 3 layers of the anterior compartment of the forearm? superficial, intermediate, deep
What muscles make up the superficial layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm? pronator teres, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris
What muscles make up the intermediate layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm? flexor digitorum superficialis
What muscles make up the deep layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm? flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus
What important nerves are involved in the anterior compartment? median, anterior interosseous (from median), and ulnar nerves
What muscles are involved in the posterior compartment of the forearm? brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor digitorum, extensor indicis, extensor digiti minimi
What nerves are involved in the posterior compartment of the forearm? radial/posterior interosseous nerve
Name the extensors of the wrist. extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris
Name the extensors of the thumb. extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus
Name the extensors of the fingers. extensor digitorum, extensor indicis, extensor digiti minimi
Where do the lumbricals insert? on the lateral (radial) sides of the extensor expansions of fingers 2 to 5
What do the lumbricals do? they are chiefly flexors of the MCP joints and extensors at the interphalangeal joints
what do the intereossei muscles do? they abduct and adduct the fingers
Where is the ulnar artery located? lies lateral to ulnar nerve in Guyton's canal
What are the branches of the ulnar artery? superficial palmar arch, deep palmar arch
The superficial palmar arch is further divided into what? common palmar digital, proper palmar digitals
Describe the path of the radial artery. crosses the anatomical snuffbox and becomes the princeps pollicis artery to the thumb, it ends by anastomosing with the deep palmar branch of the ulnar artery to form the deep plantar arch
What is the principle nerve of the anterior compartment of the forearm? median nerve
What does the median nerve innervate? all flexors except the FCU and ulnar half of the FDP, the thenar muscles except the adductor pollicis and deep head of the FPB, radial 2 lumbricals, sensation of palmar and dorsal skin of radial 3.5 digits and palm
What are the branches of the median nerve? anterior interosseous (pronator quadratus), palmar cutaneous branch (central palm),
How does the median nerve enter the hand? through the carpal tunnel through the recurrent branch of the median nerve
The ulnar nerve supplies what muscles? only 1.5 muscles in the forearm (FCU and ulnar half of the FDP), in the hand it provides sensation and motor to small muscles
What branches of the ulnar nerve are involved in providing sensation and motor to small muscles of the hand? palmar cutaneous branch, dorsal cutaneous branch, deep branch
Where does the palmar cutenous branch go? on the ulnar palm
Where does the dorsal cutanous branch go? ulnar half dorsum of the hand, small finger, ulnar half of ring finger
The deep branch of the sensation and motor branch innervate what muscles? hypothenar muscles, ulnar two lumbricals, adductor pollicis, deep head of FPB, interossei
Describe the path of the radial nerve in the forearm. it supplies sensation and motor through the superficial radial (sensation), and the deep branch of the radial nerve (aka. posterior interosseous)--->all muscles located entirely in posterior compartment of forearm distal to lateral epicondyle
Describe the path of the radial nerve in the hand. it provides sensation only through the superficial branch of the radial nerve to the radial 2/3 dorsum of the hand, dorsum of thumb, proximal radial one and a half digits
Describe the motor supply to the median nerve all flexors except FDP to 4 and 5, pronator teres, palmaris longus, abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis (the superifical head), radial two lumbricals
Describe the motor supply of the ulnar nerve. flexor digitorum profundus to 4 and 5, adductor pollicis, abductor digiti minimi, opponens digiti minimi, flexor digit minimi, flexor pollicis brevis (deep head), interossei, ulnar two lumbricals
Describe the motor supply of the radial nerve. brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor indicis
How are the flexor digitorum profundus and the flexor digitorum superficialis related? the flexor digitorum profundus splits the flexor digitorum superficialis
Where does the FDS insert? on the middle phalanx
Where does the FDP insert? on the distal phalanx
What is the connective tissue on tendon sheath that provides blood supply to tendons? vincula
Describe the path of the FDS and FDP through their respective bursae the FDS and FDP enter the ulnar bursa (common flexor sheath) then enter the respective digital synovial sheaths
The FPL enters what bursa? the radial bursa
What fascia is continous with the antebrachial fascia? palmar fascia
When the palmaris longus tendon is present, what is the expanded tendon of the palmaris longus? palmar aponeurosis
What is the initial pathology involved in Dupuytren's contracture? painless nodular thickenings of the palmar aponeurosis that adhere to the skin.
How can Dupuytren's contracture progess to something worse? Progressive contracture of the longitudinal bands produces raised ridges in the palmar skin that extend from the proximal part of the hand to the base of the 4th and 5th fingers
DeQuervain's tenosynovities involves the tendons of what muscles? muscles in the dorsal compartment, such as the APL and EPB
What are some symptoms of DeQuervain Tenosynovitis? pain over the radial side of the wrist radiating distal into the thumb
What is trigger finger? A snapping condition of any of the digits of the hand when opened or closed
What is the pathogology behind claw hand? extension of the MCP joint and flexion of the PIP and DIP joints from pathology the ulnar nerve.
What is Ape hand? inability to oppose the thumb and limited abduction of the tongue from damage that
The median nerve supplies sensory fxn to what parts of the body? the thumb, index, middle and radial half of the ring finger on the palmar side of the hand and the tip of the thumb, index, middle and ring finger on the dorsum of the thumb
The radial nerve supplies sensory fxn to what parts of the body? the dorsolateral aspect of the hand and the dorsal aspect of the thumb, index, middle, and lateral half of the ring fingers
The ulnar nerve supplies sensory fxn to what parts of the body? the dorsal and palmar aspects of the medial half of the ring finger and the whole of the little finger.
How do you assess the motor fxn of the median nerve? ask the patient to make an O
How do you assess the motor fxn of the radial nerve? ask the patient to straighten their fingers
How do you assess the motor fxn of the ulnar nerve? ask the patient to spread their fingers
How do assess the vascular fxn in the forearm and wrist? examine radial and ulnar pulse, assess capillary refill
What do you want to do as part of your initial assessment of an injury to the forearm and/or wrist? ABC, neurovascular fxn, examine for tenderness and ROM, perform a complete exam for other injuries, immobilize the forearm and upper arm while waiting for an X-ray, provide analgesia, immediate fx reduction if there is neurovascular compromise
What is the MOI of adult two bone forearm fxs? MVAs, direct blow, fall from a height or during a sport
What is the usual presentation of an adult two bone forearm fx? pain and swelling at site, obvious deformity
What type of X-rays do you need to assess an adult two bone forearm fx? X-ray entire length of forearm, wrist and elbow, with AP and lateral views
What is the usual treatment for adult two bone forearm fxs? operative treatment due to displacement
What are some complications of forearm fxs? nonunion/malunion, compromise of brachial/radial artery blood supply, median, ulnar, or radial nerve injury, infection (most likely if fx is secondary to cruch injury), compartment syndrome, radioulnar fusion (synostosis), refx
What is an essex-lopresti lesion? a comminuted radial head fx, longitudinal radioulnar dissociation may result if the forearm interosseous ligament tears as well
What are some examples of distal radius fxs? colles, smiths, bartons, chauffeurs
What is the most common MOI for distal radial fxs? fall on an outstretched hand
What is the etiology behind lateral epicondylitis? any activity involving wrist extension and/or supination
What are some risk factors associated with work-related lateral epicondylitis? handling tools heavier than 1 kg, handling loads heavier than 20 kg at least 10 times a day, and repetitive movements for more than 2 hours per day
What is the pathophysiology associated with lateral epicondylitis? it is an inflammatory process of the radial humeral bursa, synovium, periosteum, and the annular ligament, microscopic tearing results with formation of reparative tissue in the origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)
What is the typical patient presentation with lateral epicondylitis? patient presents with lateral elbow and forearm pain exacerbated by use, typical patient is a man or woman aged 35-55 who is a recreational athlete or one who engages in rigorous daily activities
What might you find on examination of a patient with lateral epicondylitis? the point of maximal tenderness is just distal (5-10 mm) to the lateral epicondyle in the area of the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, wrist extension or supination against resistance with the elbow extended should provoke the patient's symptoms.
What is the usual treatment for lateral epicondylitis? usually non surgical, unless the patient is unresponsive after 6 months
How is the pronator syndrome related to the median nerve? it is the most proximal entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve
What are some symptoms of pronator syndrome? pain in the proximal volar surface of the distal arm and forearm which generally increases with activity, decreased sensation in the radial 3 and one-half digits, negative phalen's
How do you test for pronator syndrome? by holding F/A in resisted pronation and flexion and then gradually extend it in the pronated position
What causes the pronator syndrome? compression between the heads of the pronator teres
What is typically helpful in working up a pronator teres patient? EMG and NCV studies
What is the treatment for pronator syndrome? surgical decompression
What is another name for radial tunnel syndrome? recalcitrant tennis elbow
What characterizes radial tunnel syndrome? pain over the anterolateral proximal forearm in the region of the radial neck
What subgroup of people are particularly predisposed to developing radial tunnel syndrome? individuals whose work requires repetitive elbow extension or forearm rotation
Where are the symptoms reproduced in radial tunnel syndrome? the maximum tenderness is located 4 fingerbreadths distal to the lateral epicondyle, symptoms are reproduced by extending the elbow and pronating the forearm, resisted active supination and extension of the long finger also cause pain
How do you differentiate between lateral epicondylitis and radial tunnel syndrome? with lateral epicondylitis, the tenderness is usually directly over the epicondyle and not 4 fingerbreadths distal to it.
When is surgery for radial tunnel syndrome warranted? if conservative treatment fails after 12 weeks
What is the 2nd most common compressive neuropathy? cubital tunnel syndrome
Which gender is most predisposed to cubital tunnel syndrome? males
What are signs of cubital tunnel syndrome? numbness and tingling along the little finger and ulnar half of the ring finger, usually accompanied by weakness of grip, this usually occurs when the patient rest upon or flexes the elbow
Where is the pain located in cubital tunnel syndrome? at the level of the cubital tunnel, which may radiate proximally or distally, symptoms vary from a vague discomfort to hypersensitivity at the elbow, and they may be intermittent at first and then become constant
What might be quite disturbing to a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome? nocturnal symptoms, especially with elbow flexion
Patients with chronic ulnar neuropathy may complain of what? loss of grip and pinch strength and loss of fine dexterity
Patients with severe prolonged compression may complain of what? instrinsic muscle wasting and clawing or abduction of the little finger
What is the treatment for cubital tunnel syndrome? night splints, modification of activity, NSAIDS, surgical decompression
Created by: bmensen