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Southeastern Institute A&P 9. Central Nervous System

Central Nervous System (CNS) Make up of Brain and Spinal Cord, Protected by meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Meninges Protective connective tissue covering in the central nervous system
Pia Mater Innermost layer of meninges
Subarachnoid Space between meninges filled with CSF
Arachnoid Middle layer of meninges
Subdural Space between meninges
Dura Mater Outer most layer of meninges
Epidural Between dura mater & vertebral canal
Cerebrospinal Fluid Supplies CNS w/ oxygen and nutrients, Carries away waste, Shock absorber, Formed in choroids plexus in brain ventricles
Spinal Cord Exits skull through foramen magnum, Goes to L2, Conveys sensory and motor information
Sulci Grooves of the brain
Gyri Ridges of the brain
Fissures Sulci deep enough to divide brain into hemispheres
Cerebrum Largest part of brain which is divided into lobes
Frontal Lobe Motor output, Cognition, Speech production, Broca’s area in left hemisphere
Corpus Callosum Fibrous bundles connecting the 2 hemispheres
Cerebral Cortex Thin gray layer on outer portion of brain
Parietal Lobe Somatosensory, Skin and muscle, Taste
Temporal Lobe Auditory, Olfactory, Wernicke’s - language comprehension in left hemisphere
Occipital Lobe Visual input
Right Hemisphere Controls left side of body, Perception of nonspeech auditory sounds, Melodies, laughing, crying, coughing, Better at spatial relationships
Left Hemisphere Controls right side of body, Language – reception and expressive, Some skilled and general hand movements, Gestering
Beta Brain Waves Wakeful and mental activity
Alpha Brain Waves Relaxed and nonattentive
Theta Brain Waves Drowsiness, dream like, collective unconscious, out-of-body
Delta Brain Waves Deep sleep
Diencephalon Center of brain that contains thalamus & hypothalamus
Thalamus 80% of diencephalon, Sensory info to cerebrum
Hypothalamus Regulates ANS & endocrine by governing pituitary gland
Cerebellum Cauliflower shaped, Posterior and inferior to cerebrum, 2nd largest part of brain, Muscle tone, Coordinates complex movements, Regulates posture and balance
Brainstem Continuous with spinal cord, made up of midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
Midbrain Nerve impulses from cerebrum to pons, Sensory impulses from spinal cord to thalamus, Controls movement of eyes, head and neck in response to visual and auditory stimulus
Pons Nerve impulse back & forth in cerebellum, Helps control breathing
Medulla Oblongata Most inferior part of brainstem, Sensory and motor between spinal cord and brain,cross-over fibers that switch hemispheres vs. body, Respiratory center, Cardiovascular center, Vasomotor center, 5 pairs of cranial nerves branch from here
Blood-Brain Barrier Semipermeable wall of blood capillaries, Thick basement membrane & neuroglia, Prevent or slow down some chemical compounds & disease causing organisms into brain
Considered most vital part of brain Medulla Oblongata
Created by: cmcracken



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