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Southeastern Nervous

Southeastern Institute A&P 8. Nervous System

Central Nervous System Consists of Brain & Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System Nervous system located outside of the central nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System Automatically controls systems in our body
Parasympathetic Nervous System Keeps our body in homeostasis and brings us back into homeostasis after we are done using the sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic Nervous System Fight or Flight, the system that takes over when we are threatened
Neuroglia Connective tissue, Supports, nourishes, protects, insulates and organizes neurons
Astrocytes Structural support, found in blood brain barrier
Ependymocytes Assist circulating CSF (using cell’s cilia)
Microglia Destroy pathogens & remove dead neural tissue (phagocytosis)
Oligodendrocytes Make myelin sheath around CNS axons
Satellite cells PNS structural support
Schwann cells Make myelin sheath around PNS axons
Neurons Basic impulse conducting cell, Excitability, Conductability
Dendrites Highly branched, receive & transmit stimuli towards cell body
Cell body Cyton, Nucleus, ribosomes & other organelles
Axon Carry nerve impulse away from cell body
Myelin sheath White matter, Insulates neuron, Can speed up impulses
Nodes of Ranvier Gaps between Schwann cells on myelinated axon
Tolendria Clusters of short filaments at distal end of axon
Synaptic Bulb Small bud at end of axon terminal
Synaptic Vesicles Saclike structures in synaptic bulb that make and store neurotransmitters
Sensory Afferent, send impulses to CNS
Interneurons Association, Connect sensory and motor nerves, In brain and spinal cord
Motor Efferent, messages from CNS to activate or inhibit muscle or gland
Reflex Arc Simplest function of the nervous system
Reflex Instant, automatic response
Nerves Bundles of neurons
Endoneurium Connective tissue that surrounds neurons
Nerve fascicle Bundle of neurons
Perineurium Connective tissue that wraps around nerve fisciculi
Epineurium Connective tissue that wraps around nerves
Nerve impulse Action potential, Electrical fluctuation traveling along cell membrane
Polarization Resting Potential, No electrical signal, 3 Na+ outside for every 2K+ inside, Positive charge outside & negative inside
Action Potential Conducting nerve impulse
Depolarization Na+ flood neuron
Reverse Polarization Negative outside & positive inside
Repolarization K+ outside, outside positive
Sodium-potassium pump Resets & maintains resting potential, Refractory, Cannot receive impulse until everything is reset
Continuous conduction Impulse conducted on unmyelinated axons
Saltatory conduction Impulse conducted on myelinated axons
Synapse Junction between 2 neurons or muscle, gland, etc.
Synaptic cleft Indentation on plasma membrane where receptor sites are found
Plasma membrane Cell membrane that has receptor sites for neurotransmitters
Synaptic Transmission 1. impulse stops at axon terminal (bulbs) 2. released neurotransmitters cross synaptic cleft 3. neurotransmitters bind w/receptor sites on postsynaptic neuron, muscle or gland
Threshold All-or-none response, strength & frequency of stimuli determine whether impulse is created
Summation Repeated stimulus builds up to create an impulse
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers involved in nerve impulse transmission, Stored in presynaptic vesicles
Acetylcholine Most common, muscle contraction
Catecholamine Chemical family, excitation & inhibition on SNS
Epinephrine Acts as hormone when secreted by adrenal medulla
Norepinephrine Mediates physiological & metabolic responses
Dopamine Emotions, motor control, attention & learning, depletion is found in Parkinson’s disease
Serotonin Inhibitory, sensory perception, mood regulation and sleep
Histamine Excitatory, emotions, body temperature and water balance
Enkephalins & Endorphins Inhibitory, like opiates to block pain
Created by: cmcracken



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