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Southeastern Muscle

Southeastern Institute A&P 6. Muscular System

Muscle System Physiology External mobility, Internal mobility, Heat production, Posture Maintenance
Muscle fiber Muscle cell
Fascicle Bundle of muscle fibers
Muscle Organ Bundle of muscle fascicle
Endomysium Connective tissue that wraps muscle cells
Perimysium Connective tissue that wraps fascicle
Epimysium Connective tissue that wraps muscle organs
Myofilaments protein strands in a muscle
Actin Thin myofilaments
Myosin Thick myofilaments
Myofibrils Groups of thick & thin myofilaments
Tendon Corded fascia that attaches muscle to bone
Aponeurosis Broad flat tendon
Retinacula Bandage like retaining bands that hold tendons in place
Sarcolemma Muscle cell membrane
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Stores and releases calcium ions
Troponin & tropomyosin Molecules that sit on actin to keep actin and myosin apart
Sarcomere Smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber
Z lines Ends of the sarcomere
Sliding Filament Theory Theory of how filaments within a sarcomere slide past each other in order to change muscle length
Excitability Ability of a muscle to respond to stimulus
Contractility Ability of a muscle to shorten
Extensibility Ability of muscle fibers to lengthen
Elasticity Ability of muscle fibers to return to their original shape after movement
Motor Unit Motor neuron and all muscle fibers that it attaches to
Motor end plate Where neurons connect to folded sections of sarcolemma
Acetylcholine ACH, main neurotransmitter used in muscle contraction
All or none response When a muscle fiber is sufficiently stimulated it will contract to its fullest extent or not at all
Recruitment Motor unit activation based on need
Adenosine triphosphate ATp, Energy used for a muscle contraction
Aerobic respiration Use of oxygen to make energy
Anaerobic respiration Makes energy without use of oxygen
Lactid acid End product of anaerobic glycosis
Smooth Muscle Cells Spindle shape, Moves organs
Skeletal Muscle Cells Cylindrical shaped, Voluntary, Moves bones
Cardiac Muscle Y or H shaped, Intercalated disks, Moves the heart
Belly Wide central portion of a muscle
Origin Muscle attachment on less moveable bone
Insertion Muscle attachment on moveable bone
Agonist Prime mover for an action
Antagonist Opposing muscle to an action
Synergist Helper muscle to an agonist
Reciprical Inhibition When an agonist contracts, the nervous system sends a message for the antagonist to relax
Slow Twitch Red muscle, Fatigue resistant, Long distance runner
Fast Twitch White Muscle, Fatigues quickly, Power lifter
Intermediate Pink muscle, Combination, Sprinter
Proprioceptors Sensory receptors in muscles
Muscle spindle In muscle belly, Detect sudden ballistic stretches
Golgi Tendon Organs Detect long slow stretch
Isotonic Contraction Same tension,Muscle length changes
Concentric Most common isotonic contraction, Shortening
Eccentric Lengthening muscle contraction
Isometric Contraction Same length, Muscle tension changes
Uniarticular Muscle crossing one joint
Biarticular Muscle crossing two joints
Multiarticular Muscle crossing more than two joints
Created by: cmcracken



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