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Southeastern Skeleta

Southeastern Institute A&P 5. Skeletal System

Skeletal System Physiology Supports systems through framework. Protects organs. Movement through leverage. Hemopoiesis. Stores fat for later use. Stores minerals for later use
Long Bones that are longer than wide
Short Bones that are usually small and cuboidal
Flat Bones that have a broad flat surface
Irregular Bones that fall into a catch all category for bone shapes that don’t fit in another category
Sesamoid Bones that are embedded in tendons
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone
Medullary Cavity Center of diaphysis
Haversian Canals Longitudinal pathway through bone
Volkman’s Canals Horizontal pathway through bone
Periosteum Sheath that surround the diaphysis
Interosseous Ligament Membrane found between specific bones (i.e. ulna & radius or tibia & fibula)
Epiphyses Ends of a long bone
Epiphyseal Plate Growth plate between the epiphyses & diaphysis
Epiphyseal Line Replaces the epiphyseal plate when bone growth is complete
Articular Cartilage Hyaline cartilage at the ends of long bones that create a buffer between the bones
Osteoblasts Bone forming cells
Osteoclasts Cells that break down bone
Osteocyte Mature osteoblast
Spongy Bone Lattice-like network in the center of a long bone which is filled with red and yellow marrow
Compact Bone Outer portion of bone that is dense for strength
Ossification Bone development
Exercise Stresses the skeletal system. Moves blood calcium into bones. Osteoblasts are stimulated. Makes stronger bones
Osteoclasts break down the minerals And move the minerals into the blood
Osteoblasts replace bone lost Due to metabolism
Aging Decrease of hormone levels slow down the rate at which osteoblasts rebuild bone. Can result in loss of bone mass.
Axial Skeleton Skull, vertebrae, sternum & ribs
Appendicular Skeleton Extremities and how they attach to the axial skeleton
Synarthoses Joints with little to no movement and found in skull sutures & tooth joints
Amphiarthroses Slightly moveable joints and found in pubic symphysis & intervertebral joints
Diarthroses Freely moving joints
Bursae Collapsed sac-like structures that provide additional synovial fluid to protect muscle tendons
Flexion Decrease of an angle of a joint
Extension Straighten or increase the angle of a joint
Abduction Movement away from median plane
Adduction Movement towards median plane
Supination Lateral (outward) rotation of forearm
Pronation Medial ( inward) rotation of forearm
Plantar Flexion Movement of the ankle making the toes point down
Dorsiflexion Movement of the ankle making the toes point toward the shin
Inversion Medial edge of foot is elevated so that the soles of the feet face each other
Eversion Lateral edge of foot is elevated so that the soles of the feet are turned away from each other
Circumduction Distal end moves in a circle while the proximal end stays relatively fixed
Rotation Bone moves around its own central axis
Elevation Raising or lifting a body part
Depression Lowering or dropping a body part
Protraction Movement forward or anteriorly
Retraction Movement backward or posteriorly
Pelvic Tilt Anterior or posterior tilting of the entire pelvis
Pelvic Rotation One side of pelvis is further forward than the other
Hinge Limited to flexion and extension
Pivot & Screw Limited to rotation
Saddle Joint Carpometacarpal of the thumb for its varied movements
Ellipsoidal Joint Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction
Ball & Socket Joint Permit all movements
Gliding All movements but are limited to gliding
Created by: cmcracken



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