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The Basics Anatomy 1

First lecture covering chapters 1 and 2 of Anatomy book.

Human Anatomy Study of the structure of the Human Body
Human Physiology Study of the function of anatomical features
Tissue group of similar cells that perfrom a specific function
Organ two or more tissue types that work together to cary out a particular function
Cells basic structural and functional unit of life
Organ System group of organs that carry out a basic function of the organism
Organism composed of organ systems
Integumentary System Skin: function is for external support and protection
Skeletal System provides support and framework. also where blood cells are produced
Muscular system body movement, posture, and support. also has a role in heat production. 60% of body mass is muscle
Nervous system regulates all body activities
Endocrine system Secretes hormones
Circulatry system Transports blood and removes metabolic waste
Lymphatic system Body immunity and tissue drainage
Respiratory system Gas exchange
Digestive system Breakdown and absorption of food
Urinary system filters blood, removes metabolic waste
Reproductive system production of sex cells
anatomical position stance where a person stands erect, feet flat on floor, arms at sides, palms, face, and eyes are facing forward
Supine palms face up or forward
Prone forearm faces down or rearward
sagittal plane right and left portions
midsagittal plane equal right and left portions
frontal plane divides into anterior and posterior portions
transverse plane divides into superior and inferoir planes
Anterior (Ventral) towards the front
Posterior (Dorsal) towards the back
Superior (Cranial) towards the top
Inferior towards the botom
Medial refers to how close something is to midsagital plane
Lateral refers to how far away something is from midsagittal plane
Proximal refers to "close to the body" or "up the arm" term is ONLY for ARMS and LEGS
Distal refers to "away from the body" or "down the arm" term is ONLY for ARMS and LEGS
Deep internal
Superficial external
Axial region consists of the head, cervical region (neck) and trunk. trunk divided into thoracic region and abdominal region with diaphragm being the division point
Appendicular region upper and lower limbs
Gross Anatomy The study of the structure visible to the naked eye
Systemic Anatomy Study of one organ system at a time
Regional Anatomy Study of multiple organ systems in a given region
Terminologia Anatomica code of standard anatomical terms provides a worldwide standard for naming human structures
Diaphragm a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; Large flat muscle that helps with breathing
Cephalic head region
Facial related to sight and smell organs
Cranial related to the brain
Orbital related to the eyes
Oral related to the mouth
Nasal related to the nose
Mental related to the chin
Cervical related to the neck
Thoracic related to the Chest
Pectoral related to the chest
Sternal related to the breast bone or sternum
Acromial Front of shoulder
Axillary Armpit region
Vertebral Backbones
Scapular Shoulder blade
Abdominopelvic cavity Name for the abdominal and pelvic cavities which make up the space between the diaphragm and pelvic floor
Abdominal region consists of the top 2/3 of the abdominopelvic cavity. contains the umbilical and lumbar region
Umbilical related to the belly button
Lumbar related to the lower back
Pelvic region consists of the bottom 1/3 of the abdominopelvic cavity. consists of the pubic, inguinal, sacral, gluteal, and perineal regions
Pubic the lower part of the abdomen just above the external genital organs
Inguinal region of the groin
Sacral Center of the butt
Gluteal buttox
Perineal between the legs
Coxal hip bone or hip joint
Brachium Upper arm
Cubital Elbow
Antebrachium Forearm
Carpal wrist
Manus Hand
Palmar surface of hand anterior surface (palm surface of hand)
Dorsum of hand posterior surface (back side of hand)
Digits fingers
Femoral Thigh
Patellar Front of Knee
Popliteal Back of Knee
Crural region consisting of the knee to the ankle
Tarsal Ankle
Pes Foot
Dorsum of foot Superior portion (top of foot)
Plantar surface Sole of foot
Body Cavity an internal space in the body lined by membranous sacs containing internal organs
Dorsal Body Cavity sac the encloses the brain (cranial cavity) and spine (vertebral canal)
Ventral body cavity separated by the diaphragm, a muscular sheet, into the thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities
Thoracic Cavity Lungs, heart, and major blood vessels here; region consists of two layered membrane regions. Is the region between the Lungs from base of neck to the diaphragm and is divided by mediastinum, a thick partition which encloses the heart.
Pleura double layer sac found on the right and left sides of thoracic cavity.
Visceral pleura forms the external surface of the lungs as in it actually touches the organ...covers the lungs
Parietal pleura lines the inside of the rib cage (cavity); is towards the body wall; external membrane
Pleural cavity the narrow space between the parietal and visceral pleurae where pleural fluid is secreted
Pericardial cavity separates the visceral and parietal pericardium; where pericardial fluid is found
Visceral pericardium inner layer of the pericardium that forms the heart surface; covers the surface of the heart
Parietal pericardium is the outer layer of the pericardium; lines the inside of the cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity consists of the abdominal cavity (2/3) and the pelvic cavity (1/3). peritoneum is the membrane found in this cavity
Abdominal cavity consists mostly of digestive organs
Pelvic Cavity consist of the distal part (end) of the large intestine, urinary bladder, urethra, and reproductive organs
Visceral organ an internal organ of the body within the chest (heart and lungs) or abdomen (liver, pancreas, and intestines). these organs are found within some sort of body cavity
Serous Membrane thin lining of cavities which secrete a lubricating film of moisture
Pleura membranous lining of the lungs
Pericardium membranous lining of the heart
Peritoneum membranous lining of the abdomen and pelvis has a parietal layer (lines inside of body cavity) and a visceral layer (covers organ surface)
Retroperitoneal behind the peritoneum. Used to describe the position of the kidneys, which is outside of the peritoneal sac alongside the spine.
What are the organ systems? Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Circulatory, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive
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