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S2 Final Exam

The CNS refers to? brain and spinal cord
Describe ependymal cells. glial cells/line cavities of brain & spinal cord/beating of cilia help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid
Describe nurilemma. Part of schwann cell external to the myelin sheath
What is a dendrite? neuron processes that convey incoming messages TOWARD the cell body
Small collections of nerve cell bodies found in a small # of locations outside the CNS are called? ganglia
Describe myelin. fatty material that covers long nerve fibers/whitish
Pacinian corpuscles are sensitive to? deep pressure
What is an association neuron? connect the motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways
Differentiate bwtn. gray matter and white matter. white matter-consists of dense collections of myelinated fibers gray matter-mostly unmyelinated fibers & cell bodies
Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are (myelinated/unmyelinated)? myelinated
Bipolar neurons are commonly found in the? eye and nose
Which ion rapidly diffuses out into the tissue fluid immediately after an action potential? sodium
How does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a polarized neuron differ from the external environment? interior is negatively charged & contains less sodium
How does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a depolarized neuron differ from the external environment? positively charged
When a nerve fiber is polarized, the concentration of _________ ions is higher on the outside of its membrane and ___________ is higher on the inside. Na; K
What is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential? 1. Sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse in. 2. membrane becomes depolarized, K channels open and K diffuse out 3. sodium ions actively transported out, membrane becomes polarized
Which is faster? A salutatory conduction on an unmyelinated fiber? salutatory conduction
The point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is the _________? synapse
What do the tarsal glands secrete? oily secretion that lubricates the eye
Tarsal glands are modified ________ glands. sweat
An infection of the conjunctiva is commonly called? pinkeye
Tears are produced by the lacrimal glands that are located where? above the lateral end of each eye
What is lysozyme secretion? enzyme that destroys bacteria
What is the conjunctiva? lines the eyelids & covers part of the outer surface of the eyeball
The white of the eye is the? sclera
The transparent central anterior portion of the sclera through which light passes is the? cornea
The middle coat of the eyeball contains pigment which prevents light from scattering in the eyeball is the? choroid
The blind spot where no photoreceptor cells are present is located at the? optic disc
What is the iris? pigmented; has rounded opening, pupil, through which light passes
The 3 sets of color receptors within the retina are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light that are: ??? red, blue, green
The greatest visual acuity is found at the? fovea centralis
Cataracts cause hazy vision and possible eventual blindness from changes in the? lens
Does colorblindness occur most often in women or men? men
What is vitreous humor? gel-like substance that helps prevent the eyeball from collapsing inward
What is accommodation? ability of the eye to focus specifically for close objects
What is convergence? reflexive movement of the eyes medially when we view close objects
Is body coordination controlled by hormones? no
Hormone concentrations in the blood under normal conditions are USUALLY regulated by _________ feedback mechanisms. negative
What changes follow the binding of a hormone to its target cells? proteins are synthesized in the cell; enzymes are activated or inactivated; plasma membrane permeability changes
Lipid hormones manufactured in cell plasma membranes are ______________ prostaglandins
Can steroids catalyze cyclic AMP? no
The type of endocrine stimulus that involves changing levels of certain blood borne ions and nutrients is called? humoral stimulus
Where is the pituitary gland located? hangs by a stalk from the inferior surface of the hypothalamus of the brain
What is the function of tropic hormones? stimulate their target organs to secrete their hormones which in turn exert their effects on other body organs& tissues
Hypersecretion of growth hormone in adulthood after long bone growth has ended leads to ____________. sterility
What are the anterior pituitary hormones? growth hormone, prolactin, FSH, LH, ICSH, TSH, ACTH
What hormone triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary? lutenizing hormone (LH)
In men, lutenizing hormone is also called? interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
What substances are produced by the hypothalamus? oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone
What is goiter? enlargement of the thyroid gland that results when diet is deficient in iodine
What are the functions of oxytocin? stimulates contractions of the uterine muscle during labor, sexual relations; milk ejection
Vasopressin is also called__________? antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone may lead to? diabetes insipidus
Where is the thyroid gland located? base of the throat, just inferior to the adams apple
What are the thyroid hormones? Thyroxine; triiodothyronine
Blood is what type of body tissue? connective tissue
What does the buffy coat between formed elements and the plasma in centrifuged blood supply contain? leukocytes (WBCs & Platelets)
What are the physical characteristics of blood? scarlet to dull red; thick; metallic; sticky
Describe blood plasma in color, content, pH. clearish, white; 90% water; 7.35-7.45
Normal whole blood contains how many grams of hemoglobin per 100 mL? 12-18 grams
What can lead to anemia? decrease in the oxygen-carrying ability of blood
There is an average of _________ WBCs per cubic millimeter of whole blood. 4,000-11,000
Which white blood cells are granulocytes? neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Eosinophils increase rapidly during allergy attacks and infections of ____________? parasitic worms
The type of leukocytes that contain large amounts of the vasodilator histamine are ___________. basophils
The type of leukocytes that become macrophages in the tissues are ____________. monocytes
Platelets are fragments of multinucleate cells called ______________________. megakaryocytes
The average functional life span of a RBC is? 100-120 days
An immature RBC is called a ________________. reticulocyte
What hormone regulates erythrocyte production? erythroprotein
Describe the myocardium. consists of thick bundles of cardiac muscle twisted and whorled; layer that actually contracts; reinforced by fibrous CT
Where are the atria located? superior to the ventricles
Where is the tricuspid valve located? the right side
The superior vena cavae empties ___________ blood into the __________________. oxygen-poor; pulmonary trunk
What type of blood is carried by the pulmonary vein? oxygen-rich
The aortic semilunar valve is composed of ___ cusps and opens when the left ___________ contracts. 3; ventricle
The anterior interventricular and marginal arteries are direct branches of the _______________. coronary arteries
The crescent-shaped pacemaker of the heart that initiates depolarization under normal conditions is the ____________________. sinoatrial node (SA node)
What is the bradycardia? heart rate that is usually substantially lower than normal
When is the mitral valve normally closed? when the ventricle is in systole (contracting)
During ventricular systole,blood enters the pulmonary trunk and the ______________. aorta
The volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle with each beat of the heart is called the ___________. cardiac output
The path of blood flow within the systemic vascular system is: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cavae
An increase in parasympathetic activity causes a decrease in? both heart rate and cardiac output
The fluid that is forced out of the capillary beds by hydrostatic and osmotic pressures and into the tissue spaces is called ______________. interstitial fluid
Lymph flows _________ the heart. toward
The right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the ___________________. right arm, and the right sides of the head and thorax
What aids lymph return? skeletal muscle contraction
Describe the structure of a lymph node. consists of macrophages, lymph nodes, kidney shaped, buried in CT, less than 1"
Is the appendix a lymph organ? no
What is the function of the thymus gland? produces hormones that function on the programming of certain lymphocytes
Where are Peyer's patches located? in the small intestine
Is lymph fluid produced by the skin? no
The immune system is also called the specific ________ _____________. body defense
What are nonspecific body defenses? barriers (skin), cells, and chemicals (lysozymes) that work on initial battlefronts
What is the body's second line of defense? phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammatory response, fever, chemical substances
What are the four cardinal signs of the inflammatory response? 1. Redness 2. Heat 3. Swelling 4. Pain
After injury, the chemical alarm begins with _______ and ________. histamine; kinins
What do the chemicals in the inflammatory process do? cause blood vessels to dilate; activate pain receptors; attract phagocytes and WBCs
How do interferons function? diffuse to nearby cells and bind to their membrane receptors
The body's temperature regulator is located in the _____________ brain, it is the hypothalamus
What effect does fever have on the body? increases metabolic rate of tissue cells; liver and spleen gather nutrients
What structures comprise the conducting passageway for the respiratory system? Nose; pharynx; larynx; trachea
What are the functions of the conducting passageway? getting air into the body; moisture; warms
Is the nasopharynx considered a part of the nose? No
What is the function of cilia in the nasal mucosa? moves contaminated mucus towards the throat
What separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity? palate
Does the mandible contain sinuses? no
Do the paranasal sinuses have any olfactory functions? no
The auditory tubes open into the? nasal pharynx
Adenoids are also called? pharyngeal tonsils
Vibration that results in speech is a function of? vocal folds (vocal cords)
The cilia of the trachea do what? propel mucus loaded with debris away from the lungs to the throat
Compare left and right bronchus. right is shorter, wider, straighter
How many lobes do the lungs have? left- 2 right- 3 TOTAL=5
Does the pleura produce a sticky mucus? No
What type of epithelial cells comprise the walls of the alveoli? squamous
What is the function of surfactant? coats the gas exposed alveolar surfaces
What is pulmonary ventilation? breathing: air moving in & out of the lungs
Do the kidneys produce hormones necessary for digestion? No
Where are the kidneys located? retro-peritoneal
The kidneys are aided in the excretion of fluids by the? lungs and skin
Describe the medullary pyramids. triangular regions that look striped and are separated by the RENAL column
What is the correct pathway for arterial blood supply through the kidney? 1. renal artery 2. interlobar arteries 3. adequate arteries 4. interlobar
What is Bowman's capsule? closed end of renal tubule that is enlarged, cup shaped, and completely surrounded by the glomerulus
How many nephrons are in a kidney? over a million
Starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule regions is: proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
What is the membrane like that surrounds the glomerulus? enlarged and cup-shaped
Blood pressure within the glomerulus is ____________? high
Of the capillary beds associated with each nephron, the one that is both fed and drained by arterioles is the _____________. glomerulus
The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called ___________. filtration
What is the pH of urine normally? 6 (acidic)
Is creatine found normally in urine? yes
The specific gravity of urine is normally? 1.001-1.035
Is the bladder anterior to the pubic symphysis? no
What is lithotripsy? use of ultrasound waves to shatter kidney stones
The male gonads are the ___________. testes
What is a zygote? fertilized egg
What is the exocrine function of the male testes? sperm production
The actual sperm forming area of the testes are the ______________________________. seminiferous tubules
Androgens like testosterone are produced by? interstitial cells of the testis
What is the correct order of the male duct system? From inside to outside. 1. epididymic 2. ductus deferens 3. urethra
Where is the spermatic cord? in the testes: encloses blood vessels, nerves, and vas deferens
Where is the membranous urethra located? btwn. the prostatic urethra and penis
What are the components of semen? fructose, chemicals, nutrients, sperm, seminalplasmin
What produces 60% of the fluid volume of semen? seminal vesicles
The fluid from the prostate gland does what? activates semen
What is the normal pH of semen? 7.2-7.6
For pregnancy to occur, sperm count must be above? 20 million
What stage of life does spermatogenesis occur? puberty
What are spermatogonia? stem cells that go through mitotic divisions that begins sperm formation
Follicle stimulating hormone causes spermatogonium to produce? stem cell (type A daughter cell) and another cell (type B daughter cell)
The final outcome of meiosis is how many cells? 4
How many chromosomes are in an ovum? 23
Are spermatids functional sperm? no
The process of spermatogenesis takes how long? 64-72 days
What are secondary sex characteristics in males? deepening of voice, hair growth, enlargement of skeletal muscles, increased heaviness of skeleton
Where does fertilization normally occur? fallopian tubes
How long is the journey of the oocyte from the uterine tube to the uterus following ovulation? 3-4 days
Describe the fundus of the uterus. superior rounded region above the entrance of the uterine tubes
What part of the uterus is sloughed off during menses? functional layer of thick lining of uterus
A vasectomy is performed on a (man/woman)? man
What are treatments for prostate problems? using drugs to shrink it; inserting small balloon to compress prostate tissue away from urethra; radiation inserted by needle
What hormone is responsible for ovulation? glutenizing hormone
The menstral cycle is on average ____ days long. 28
What occurs during the proliferative stage? basal layer of endometrium regenerates functional layer, glands formed in it, endometrial blood supply increased
What are secondary sex characteristics in women? enlargement of accessory organs, development of breasts, axillary and pubic hair, fat, widening of pelvis, menstrual cycle
What hormone does the corpus luteum primarily produce? progesterone
Mammary glands are modified __________ glands. sweat
The clusters of specific glands that produce milk when a woman is lactating are called? lobules
For women 40-49, how often is a mammogram recommended? every 2 years
For a sperm cell to fertilize an ovum, sexual intercourse must occur no more than ____ hours before ovulation. 72
What is measured in a woman's urine in a woman's urine to determine if pregnancy has occurred? hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
When (in weeks) is the placenta functioning? 3 weeks
All organ systems are laid down, and the embryo looks human by about which week? 8th week
What is the functional junction between two neurons? synapse
What is essential for nerve impulse propagation? action potential
What structures are considered the "refracting portion" of the eye? cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
Correctly list the order of all the parts through which light passes as it enters the eye. cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
Which hormone exerts its primary effects on reproductive the organs? lutenizing hormone
What is the most abundant formed element? red blood cell (erythrocytes)
Do mature red blood cells contain organelles? no
Do white blood cells initiate the clotting process? no
In adults, does blood cell formation occur in the shaft of the femur? yes, and the skull, pelvis, ribs, and sternum
Type of stem cell that produces all the formed elements EXCEPT lymphocytes are _____________________. hemocytoblasts
Which heart chamber receives blood directly from the four pulmonary veins? left atrium
Are the pulmonary arteries considered to be part of the systemic circulation? no. pulmonary circulation.
When the ventricles contract the bicuspid (mitral) valve prevents blood from flowing from the left ____________ to the _____________. ventricle; atrium
What vessel receives blood during right ventricular systole? pulmonary arteries/trunk
What causes the lub-dup sound of the heart? closing of the AV valve
Are the valves in lymph nodes similar to those found in the veins? no. different structurally.
The superior portion of the pharynx is called the? nasopharynx
What passive process allows for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide by the respiratory membrane? diffusion
Most nephrons are located within the renal _____________, tubule
The peritubular capillaries arise from the ___________, which drains the glomerulus. arterioles
Is urea typically reabsorbed by the tubules? yes
Created by: biggreg19



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