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A & P Mid-term Revie

Anatomy & Phyiology Review for Mid-term

laying face upward, on your back is referred to as: Supine
laying face downward, on your stomach is known as: prone position
sitting in bed with head of bed elevated 45–60 degrees is called? Fowler's Position
When would you use trendelenburg position? When patient has edema (fluid accumulated in the lower extremeties)
When would you use Fowler’s position? Breathing difficulty (facilitates breathing)
When would you use lithotomy position? In a pelvic exam, labor
When would you use sim’s position? Rectal exam or enamas
difficulty breathing if patient lies flat is known as? orthopnea
When would you see a patient with orthopnea? CHF (congestive heart failure)
Dizziness (or drop in blood pressure) when changing from seated to standing position is known as? orthostatic hypotension
This plane divides body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) sections Transverse or horizontal plane
means towards head or upper body Superior
means away from head or toward lower part of body inferior
refers to body parts located away from midline lateral
refers to body parts located near middle or midline of body: medial
This plane divides body into front and back sections Frontal or Coronal Plane
refers to body parts towards or on front of body Anterior (ventral)
refers to body parts towards or on back of body Posterior or dorsal
refers to body parts close to point of reference of body Proximal
refers to body parts away from point of reference Distal
Thoracic Cavity contains these major organs: Heart Lungs Large blood vessels
liver or gallbladder problems are mostly to present with symptoms in this quadrant RUQ
areas of body allow X-rays to pass through to film easily; produce dark areas on film called: radiolucent
areas of body allow fewer X-rays to pass through to film; produce light areas on the film called? Radiopaque
X-ray beam passes from patient’s back to patient’s front and then onto film(Standard view for chest X-ray) this type of x-ray is called? PA
X-ray beam passes from patient’s front to patient’s back and then onto film, this type of x-ray is called? AP
study of internal and external structures of the human body Anatomy
Focuses on function and vital processes of various structures making up the human body Physiology
is the study of disease characteristics, causes, and effects Pathology
The body works to make things function smoothly and maintain balance known as homeostasis
The cause of a disease is known as etiology
study of the transmission, frequency of occurrence, distribution, and control of a disease is known as? Epidemiology
If feedback opposes the stimulus it is a Negative feedback
Vital signs include: Pulse Blood Pressure Temperature Respiratory Rate
subjective indicators of illness that are perceived only by the patient Symptoms
a specific grouping of signs and symptoms related to a specific disease Syndrome
identification of disease determined by studying patient’s signs, symptoms, history, and results of diagnostic tests Diagnosis
prediction about outcome of a disease Prognosis
gradual onset of symptoms over a long period of time ex: Arthritis. Chronic disease
rapid onset of signs and symptoms eg Viral Diarrhea Acute conditions
period of time when signs and symptoms of chronic disease disappear eg multiple sclerosis Remission
first line of defense in th ebody is the: Skin
infected insect spreads infection to person (example: malaria), this is known as? Biological Vector
when consumable goods (such as food) become contaminated; results in several people simultaneously developing same infection eg food poisoning at a picnic, this is known as: Common vehicles
when the cause of a disease cannot be determined idiopathic disease
a disease that exists permanently in a particular region or population Endemic
An outbreak of disease that attacks many peoples at about the same time and may spread through one or several communities Epidemic
When an epidemic spreads throughout the world pandemic
Units of measurements all based on units that relate to each other by powers of 10 metric units
Refers to all chemical operations going on within the body metabolism
Two types of metabolism are: anabolism and catabolism
Process of simple compounds being built up and then used to manufacture materials for growth, reproduction, and repair anabolism
Process by which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances catabolism
to maintains a stable internal environment or equilibrium within the body: Homeostasis
are basic building blocks of human body Cells
Defined boundary that possesses a definite shape and actually holds cell contents together, acting as protective covering Cell membrane
choosing what gets in or out of the cell membrane is defined as: Selectively permeable
this type of transport requires no extra form of energy to complete Passive transport
type of transport that requires some addition of energy (ATP) to make it happen active transport
Passive transport types include: DiffusionOsmosis FiltrationFacilitated diffusion
substance of higher concentration travels to area of lesser concentration Diffusion
water travels through selectively permeable membrane to equalize concentrations of a substance osmosis
a condition caused by malformation in membrane channels for chloride and sodium ions in which thick mucous is produced Cystic fibrosis
Common medical problem; main symptom (high blood sugar or glucose) caused by problem with facilitated diffusion Diabetes Mellitus
Used by cells for intake of liquid and food when substance too large to diffuse across membrane endocytosis
Transport of things out of cell such as waste through a vesicle or sac exocytosis
Bad cholesterol is known as: LDL
Good cholesterol is known as: HDL
Gel-like substance composed of water, nutrients, and electrolytes, which looks a lot like white of raw egg found within cells cytoplasm
Brains” of cell Dictates activities of other organelles in cell, contains DNA Nucleus
Act as building contractor, building new structures as need arises Centrosomes
Tiny bean-shaped organelles, act as power plant for the cell Mitochondria
folded membranes in the cells that have ribosomes attached are called: Rough endoplasmic reticulum
folded membranes within the cell without ribosomes (produce lipids/steroids) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Organelles containing powerful enzymes that take care of cleaning up intercellular debris and other waste (housekeeper) Lysosomes
whip-shaped tails that move some cells, like sperm, to other locations Flagella
short, microscopic, hair-like projections located on outer surface of some cells; move particles using wavelike motion cilia
appearance of cherry red spot is characteristic of this condition: Tay Sachs
Created by: bismark



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