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Chapter 15 Midterm

Bones and Joints

QuestionAnswer
Hypercalcemia Excessive calcium in the bloodstream
Decalcification Removal of calcium from bones
Kyphosis Abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic vertebrae
Laminectomy Removal of a lamina to relieve the sysmptoms of a ruptured intervertebral disk
lordosis Abnormal anterior curvature of the backbones in the lumbar region.
Lumbar Pertaining to the loins or lower back (near the waist) region
Lumbosacral Pertaining to the lower back and the sacrum
Myelopoiesis Formation of bone marrow
Orthopedics The specialty of medicine dealing with bones and bone diseases. (orthopedists originally straightened (orth/o) the bones of children (ped/o)
Osteitis Inflammation of bones
Osteodystrophy Poor development of bones
Scoliosis Abnormal condition of lateral curvature of the spine
Spondlyosis Abnormal condition of vertebrae
Vertebral Pertaining to vertebrae
Osteoblast Immature bone cell
Osteoclast Large cell found in the bone marrow of growing bones; absorbs and removes unwanted bone tissue
Spondylolisthesis Forward displacement of a vertebra over a lower segment
Osteomalacia Softening of bone
Epiphysis End of a long bone
Pubic Symphysis Junction of the pubic bones on the midline in front of the body
Osteoporosis Condition of increased porosity of bone with loss of bony tissue and decrease in bone mass
Osteotome Instrument to cut bone
Acetabular Pertaining to the acetabulum (HIP SOCKET)
Calcaneal Pertaining to the calcaneus (HEEL BONE)
Supraclavicular Pertaining to the collar bone
Carpals Pertaining to the wrist bone
Subcostal Pertaining to below the ribs
Chondrocostal Pertaining to the cartilage attached to the ribs
Caniotomy Incision of the skull
Craniotome Instrument to cut the skull
Femoral Pertaining to the thigh bone (FEMUR)
Fibular Pertaining to the smaller of the two lower leg bones (FIBULA)
Humeral Pertaining to the upper arm bone (HUMERUS)
Iliac Pertaining to the ilium (UPPER PORTION OF THE HIP BONE)
Ischial Pertaining to the ischium (LOWER AND POSTERIOR PART OF THE HIP BONE)
Malleolar Pertaining to the malleolus (PROCESS ON EACH SIDE OF THE ANKLE)
Mandibular Pertaining to the lower jaw bone
Maxillary Pertaining to the upper jaw bone
Metacarpectomy Removal of hand bones
Metatarsalgia Pain of the foot bones
Olecranal Pertaining to the elbow
Patellar Pertaining to below the kneecap
Pelvimetry Measurement of the proportions of the pelvic bone (before childbirth)
Peroneal Pertaining to the fibula
Phalangeal Pertaining to the fingers and toes
Pubic Pertaining to the pubis (ANTERIOR PORTION OF THE HIP BONE)
Radial Pertaining to the lateral arm bone
Scapular Pertaining to the shoulder bone
Sternal Pertaining to the breast bone
Tarsectomy Removal of ankle bones
Tibial Pertaining to the tibia, the larger and inner of the two lower leg bones
Ulnar Pertaining to the medial lower arm bone
Ankylosis Abnormal stiffening and immobility of a joint
Arthroplasty Surgical repair of a joint
Arthrotomy Incision of a joint
Hemarthrosis Abnormal condition of blood in a joint
Hydrarthrosis Abnormal accumulation of fluid in a joint
Polyarthritis Inflammation of many joints
Articular Cartilage The cartilage surrounding the bones in a joint
Bursitis Inflammation of a bursa
Achondroplasia Improper cartilage formation in development of bones (leads to a type of dwarfism)
Chondroma Tumor (benign) of cartilage
Chondromalacia Abnormal softening of cartilage
Ligamentous Pertaining to a ligament
Rheumatologist Specialist in treatment of joint disorders
Synovitis Inflammation of a synovial membrane
Tenorrhaphy Suture of a tendon
Tendinitis Inflammation of a tendon, also spelled tendonitis
Arthrodesis Binding together (surgical fusion) of a joint
Spinal Stenosis Narrowing of the neutral canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine
Fasciectomy Removal of fascia
Fibromyalgia Pain of fibrous connective tissue and muscle
Leiomyoma Tumor (benign) of a smooth muscle
Leiomyosarcoma Tumor (malignant) of a smooth muscle
Myalgia Pain of muscle
Electromyography Process of recording the electricity in muscle
Myopathy Disease of muscles
Myocardial Pertaining to heart muscle
Myositis Inflammation of muscle
Plantar Flexion Bending downward of the sole of the foot
Rhabdomyoma Tumor (benign)of a skeletal muscle
Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumor (malignant)of skeletal muscle
Myasthenia gravis Condition of muscle weakness caused by a failure in transmission of nervous impulses from a nerve tp muscle cell
Atrophy Decrease in size of a normally developed organ or tissue; wasting of tissue
Hypertrophy Excessice development (increase in cell size)
Amyotrophic Pertaining to loss of muscle development (in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscles can't move becasue of degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord)
Abduction Process of carrying away (muscle is pulled away from the midline of the body)
Adduction Process of carrying toward (muscle is pulled toward the midline of the body)
Dorsiflexion Bending of the foot backward and upward
Polymyalgia Pain of many muscles
Created by: cterry