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SI Integumentary

Southeastern Institute A&P 3. Integumentary System

Protection The integumentary system uses the skin to act as a physical ,biological, and chemical barrier
Absorption The integumentary system can take in fat-soluble substances I.e. oxygen, carbon dioxide, vitamins A,D,E,& K, steroids, resins of certain plants, organic solvents, and salts of heavy metals
Sensation The integumentary system can be an extension of the nervous system, receives stimuli such as pressure, pain, & temperature
Temperature Regulation Blood vessels in the dermis regulate the flow of the blood thus controlling the release of heat or maintaining heat in the body
Waste elimination Sweat is an example
Vitamin D Synthesis Molecules that are converted by the UV rays in sunlight to vitamin D
Immunity Specialized cells, called Langerhans cells, they function along with helper Tcells to trigger useful immunological reactions
Epidermis Layer of skin found above the dermis
Keratinocytes Waterproofing cells
Melanocytes Cells that produce melanin, skin pigment, contributes to color of skin, iris of eyes, & hair
Langerhans Cells Work with helper T cells, they trigger immune reactions in certain pathological conditions
Stratum germinativum Deepest layer of the epidermis
Merkel disks Located in the epidermis, responds to light touch and discriminative touch
Stratum spinosum “Prickly layer”, contains cells from both stratum germinativum and stratum granulosum
Stratum granulosum Layer containing an accumulation of keratin granules. 3 to 5 cells deep, marks the beginning of change before the drying of the tissue
Stratum lucidum Epidermal layer found in thick skin of the hands and feet
Stratum corneum Outer most layer of the skin, cells no longer living, completely keratinized, ready to be sloughed off
Dermis Hide, the true skin
Collagen Makes up about 70% of the dermis, offers support to the nerves, blood vessels, hair follicles and glands
Elastin Fibers found in collagen which gives the skin its elasticity and resilience
Hair follicles Pouch like structures in the skin from which hair grows
Arrector pili Muscles attached to the hair follicle that contract when you are cold or experiencing emotions such as fright or anxiety
Sebaceous glands Oil glands, secrete sebum
Sudoriferous glands Sweat glands, secretes sweat or perspiration
Meissner corpuscles Mediates sensations of discriminative touch such as light vs. deep pressure, low-frequency vibration, most numerous in hairless areas such as nipples, fingertips, and lips
Pacinian corpuscles Located in the deeper dermal layer, mainly of hands, feet, and joint capsules, they respond quickly to crude and deep pressure, vibration, stretch & perceive proprioceptive information about joint position
Hair Root Plexus Hair follicle receptors, light-touch receptors that detect hair movement
Nociceptors Free nerve ends
Subcutaneous Layer Superficial fascia or hypodermis found below the dermis
Ruffini End Organs Heat receptors
Krause’s End Bulbs Cold receptors
Eccrine Sweat Glands Most numerous sweat glands
Apocrine Sweat Glands Sweat glands located in subcutaneous layer in the axillary region, areola of the breast, and pigmented skin around the anus that become active at adolescents
Ceruminous Glands Modified apocrine glands that release its secretion of the surface of the external ear canal
Nails Heavily keratinized, non living tissue, forms thin surfaces at distal ends of digits
Mole Changes “A” Asymmetrical
Mole Changes “B” Borders are uneven
Mole Changes “C” Colors vary with different shade of black or brown
Mole Changes “D” Diameter larger than a pencil eraser
Mole Changes “E” Elevated
Mole Changes “F” Fast growing
Created by: cmcracken



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